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2020 WAEC SYLLABUS FOR ALL SUBJECTS

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2020 WAEC SYLLABUS FOR ALL SUBJECTS 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES     OBJECTIVES
A. Comprehension/Summary
(a) description
(b) narration
(c) exposition
(d) argumentation/persuasion
(i) Each of the three passages to be set (one will be a cloze test) should reflect various disciplines and be about 200 words long.
(ii) Questions on the passages will test the following:
(a) Comprehension of the whole or part of each passage.
(b) Comprehension of words, phrases, clauses, sentences, figures of speech and idioms as used in the passages.
(c) Coherence and logical reasoning (deductions, inferences, etc).
(d) The Last Days at Forcados High School, A. H. Mohammed.
(e) Synthesis of ideas from the passages.
NOTE:
By synthesis of ideas is meant the art of
combining distinct or separate pieces of
information to form a complete whole.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify main points/topic sentences in passages;
ii. determine implied meaning;
iii. identify the grammatical functions of words, phrases, clauses and figurative/idiomatic expressions;
iv. deduce or infer the writer’s intentions including mood, attitude to the subject matter and opinion.

B. Lexis and Structure
(a) synonyms
(b) antonyms
(c) homonyms
(d) clause and sentence patterns
(e) word classes and their functions
(f) mood, tense, aspect, number,
agreement/concord, degree (positive,
comparative and superlative) and question
tags
(g) punctuation and spelling
(h) ordinary usage, figurative usage and
idiomatic usage are to be tested.
NOTE:
Idioms to be tested shall be those that are formal
and expressed in standard British English.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify words and expressions in their ordinary,
figurative and idiomatic contexts;
ii. determine similar and opposite meaning of words;
iii. differentiate between correct and incorrect
punctuation and spelling;
iv. identify various grammatical patterns in use;
v. interpret information conveyed in sentences.
C. Oral Forms
(a) Vowels (monophthongs and diphthongs
(b) Consonants (including clusters)
(c) Rhymes (including homophones)
(d) Word stress (monosyllabic and polysyllabic)
(e) Intonation (words emphatic stress)
NOTE:
Emphatic stress involves the placement of normal
stress on words in an utterance for the purpose of
emphasis.
Candidates should be able to:
i. make distinctions between vowel types;
ii. differentiate between consonant types;
iii. identify correct accentuation in individual words and
connected speech.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EXAMINATION
SECTION A: Comprehension/Summary
(a) 2 comprehension passages – 10 questions, 3 marks each = 30 marks
(b) I cloze passage – 10 questions, 2 marks each = 20 marks
(c) 1 reading text – 15 questions, 1 mark each = 15 marks
= 65 marks
SECTION B: Lexis Structure
(a) Sentence interpretation – 10 questions, 2 marks each = 20 marks
(b) Antonyms – 10 questions, 2 marks each = 20 marks
(c) Synonyms – 10 questions, 1 mark each = 10 marks
(d) Sentence completion – 20 questions, 1 mark each = 20 marks
= 70 marks
SECTION C: Oral Forms
15 questions, 1 mark each = 15 marks
Total: 100 questions 65 + 70 + 15 = 150 marks
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Attah, M. O. (2013) Practice in Spoken English for Intermediate and Advanced Learners, Maiduguri: University of Maiduguri Press
Bamgbose, A. (2002) English Lexis and Structure for Senior Secondary Schools and colleges (Revised Edition), Ibadan: Heinemann
Banjo, A. et al (2004) New Oxford Secondary English Course Book Six for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: UP Plc.
Caesar, O. J. (2003) Essential Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Lagos: Tonad Publishers Limited
Daniel Jones (2011) Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Egbe, D. I (1996) Mastering English Usage and Communication Skills, Lagos: Tisons
Elugbe, B. (2000) Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Ibadan: Heinemann
Grant, N. J. H, Nnamonu, S. Jowitt, D. (1998) Senior English Project 3, (New Edition) Harlow: Longman
Idowu, O. O, Sogbeson, T. S, Adofo, A. K. Burgess, D. F and Burgess, L. J. (1998) Round-up English: A Complete Guide, Lagos: Longman
Idris, U. (2001) Oral English at Your Fingertips for Schools and Colleges, Lagos, M. Youngbrain Publishers
Igiligi, E. C. and Ogenyi, S. O. (2010) Grammar and Composition in the G.S.M. Age, Enugu: Joe Hills Production Services
Jauro, L. B. (2013) Oral English for Schools and Colleges: A teaching and Learning Approach, Yola: Paraclete Publishers.
Nnamonu, S. and Jowitt, D. (1989) Common Errors in English, Lagos: Longman
Obinna, M. F. (2001) University Matriculation Use of English,(Fourth Edition) Port Harcourt: Sunray Books Limited
Ogunsanwo, O. Duruaku, A. B.C, Ezechukwu, J and Nwachukwu, U. I (2005) Countdown English Language, (Revised Edition), Ibadan: Evans
Olatoye, S. (2006) The Silent Teacher, Ado-Ekiti: Segun and Sons Enterprises
Oluikpe, B. O. A, nnaemeka, B. A, Obah, T. Y, Otagburuagu, E. J. Onuigbo, S. and Ogbonna, E. A. (1998) Intensive English for Senior Secondary School 3, Onitsha: Africana – FIRST Publisher.
Tomori, S. H. O (2000) Objective Tests for School Certificate English: Practice in Lexis, Structure and Idiom (Reprinted Edition), Ibadan: Heinemann
Ukwuegbu, C, Okoro, O., Idris, A. U., Okebukola, F. O. and Owokade, C. O. (2002) Catch-up English for SSCE/UME, Ibadan: Heinemann
MATHEMATICS SYLLABUS
TABLE OF CONTENT
SECTION I: NUMBER AND NUMERATION
1. Number bases:
2. Fractions, Decimals, Approximations and Percentages:
3. Indices, Logarithms and Surds:
SECTION II: ALGEBRA.
1. Polynomials:
2. Variation:
3. Inequalities:
4. Progression:
5. Binary Operations:
6. Matrices and Determinants:
SECTION III: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
1. Euclidean Geometry:
2. Mensuration:
3. Loci:
4. Coordinate Geometry:
5.Trigonometry:
SECTION IV: CALCULUS
I. Differentiation:
3. Integration:
SECTION V: STATISTICS
1. Representation of data:
2. Measures of Location:
3. Measures of Dispersion:
4. Permutation and Combination:
5. Probability:
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
SECTION I: NUMBER AND NUMERATION
1. Number bases:
(a) operations in different number bases from 2 to 10;
(b) conversion from one base to another including fractional parts.
Candidates should be able to:
i. perform four basic operations (x,+,-,÷)
ii. convert one base to another.
2. Fractions, Decimals, Approximations and Percentages:
(a) fractions and decimals;
(b) significant figures;
(c) decimal places;
(d) percentage errors;
(e) simple interest;
(f) profit and loss percent;
(g) ratio, proportion and rate;
(h) shares and valued added tax (VAT).
Candidates should be able to:
i. perform basic operations
(x,+,-,÷) on fractions and decimals;
ii. express to specified number of significant figures and decimal places;
iii. calculate simple interest, profit and loss percent; ratio proportion and rate;
iv. Solve problems involving share and VAT.
3. Indices, Logarithms and Surds:
(a) laws of indices;
(b) standard form;
(c) laws of logarithm;
(d) logarithm of any positive number to a given base;
(e) change of bases in logarithm and application;
(f) relationship between indices and logarithm;
(g) surds.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the laws of indices in calculation;
ii. establish the relationship between indices and logarithms in solving problems;
iii. solve problems in different bases in logarithms;
iv. simplify and rationalize surds;
v. perform basic operations on surds.
4. Sets:
(a) types of sets
(b) algebra of sets
(c) venn diagrams and their applications.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify types of sets, i.e empty, universal, complements, subsets, finite, infinite and disjoint sets;
ii. solve problems involving cardinality of sets;
iii. solve set problems using symbol;
iv. use venn diagrams to solve problems involving not more than 3 sets.
SECTION II: ALGEBRA.
1. Polynomials:
(a) change of subject of formula
(b) factor and remainder theorems
(c) factorization of polynomials of degree not exceeding 3.
(d) multiplication and division of polynomials
(e) roots of polynomials not exceeding degree 3
(f) simultaneous equations including one linear one quadratic;
(g) graphs of polynomials of degree not greater than 3.
Candidates should be able to:
i. find the subject of the formula of a given equation;
ii. apply factor and remainder theorem to factorize a given expression;
iii. multiply and divide polynomials of degree not more than 3;
iv. factorize by regrouping difference of two squares, perfect squares and cubic expressions; etc.
v. solve simultaneous equations – one linear, one quadratic;
vi. interpret graphs of polynomials including applications to maximum and minimum values.
2. Variation:
(a) direct
(b) inverse
(c) joint
(d) partial
(e) percentage increase and decrease.
Candidates should be able to:
i. solve problems involving direct, inverse, joint and partial variations;
ii. solve problems on percentage increase and decrease in variation.
3. Inequalities:
(a) analytical and graphical solutions of linear inequalities;
(b) quadratic inequalities with integral roots only.
Candidates should be able to:
i. solve problems on linear and quadratic
inequalities;
ii. interprete graphs of inequalities.
4. Progression:
(a) nth term of a progression
(b) sum of A. P. and G. P.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the nth term of a progression;
ii. compute the sum of A. P. and G.P;
iii. sum to infinity of a given G.P.
5. Binary Operations:
(a) properties of closure, commutativity, associativity and distributivity;
(b) identity and inverse elements (simple cases only).
Candidates should be able to:
i. solve problems involving closure, commutativity, associativity and distributivity;
ii. solve problems involving identity and inverse elements.
6. Matrices and Determinants:
(a) algebra of matrices not exceeding 3 x 3;
(b) determinants of matrices not exceeding 3 x 3;
(c) inverses of 2 x 2 matrices
[excluding quadratic and higher degree equations].
Candidates should be able to:
i. perform basic operations (x,+,-,÷) on matrices;
ii. calculate determinants;
iii. compute inverses of 2 x 2 matrices.
SECTION III: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
1. Euclidean Geometry:
(a) Properties of angles and lines
(b) Polygons: triangles, quadrilaterals and general polygons;
(c) Circles: angle properties, cyclic quadrilaterals and intersecting chords;
(d) construction.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify various types of lines and angles;
ii. solve problems involving polygons;
iii. calculate angles using circle theorems;
iv. identify construction procedures of special angles, e.g. 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90° etc.
2. Mensuration:
(a) lengths and areas of plane geometrical figures;
(b) lengths of arcs and chords of a circle;
(c) Perimeters and areas of sectors and segments of circles;
(d) surface areas and volumes of simple solids and composite figures;
(e) the earth as a sphere:- longitudes and latitudes.
Candidates should be able to:
i. calculate the perimeters and areas of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles and composite figures;
ii. find the length of an arc, a chord, perimeters and areas of sectors and segments of circles;
iii. calculate total surface areas and volumes of cuboids, cylinders. cones, pyramids, prisms, spheres and composite figures;
iv. determine the distance between two points on the earth’s surface.
3. Loci:
locus in 2 dimensions based on geometric
principles relating to lines and curves.
Candidates should be able to: | awajis.com/jamb
identify and interpret loci relating to parallel lines, perpendicular bisectors, angle bisectors and circles.
4. Coordinate Geometry:
(a) midpoint and gradient of a line segment;
(b) distance between two points;
(c) parallel and perpendicular lines;
(d) equations of straight lines.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the midpoint and gradient of a line segment;
ii. find the distance between two points;
iii. identify conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity;
iv. find the equation of a line in the two-point form, point-slope form, slope intercept form and the general form.
5.Trigonometry:
(a) trigonometrical ratios of angels;
(b) angles of elevation and depression;
(c) bearings;
(d) areas and solutions of triangle;
(e) graphs of sine and cosine;
(f) sine and cosine formulae.
Candidates should be able to:
i. calculate the sine, cosine and tangent of angles between – 360° (le) (theta) (le) 360°;
ii. apply these special angles, e.g. 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, 135° to solve simple problems in trigonometry;
iii. solve problems involving angles of elevation and depression;
iv. solve problems involving bearings;
v. apply trigonometric formulae to find areas of triangles;
vi. solve problems involving sine and cosine graphs.
SECTION IV: CALCULUS
I. Differentiation:
(a) limit of a function
(b) differentiation of explicit
algebraic and simple
trigonometrical functions –
sine, cosine and tangent.
Candidates should be able to:
i. find the limit of a function
ii. differentiate explicit algebraic and simple trigonometrical functions.
2. Application of differentiation:
(a) rate of change;
(b) maxima and minima.
Candidates should be able to:
solve problems involving applications of rate of change, maxima and minima.
3. Integration:
(a) integration of explicit
algebraic and simple
trigonometrical functions;
(b) area under the curve.
Candidates should be able to:
i. solve problems of integration involving algebraic and simple trigonometric functions;
ii. calculate area under the curve (simple cases only).
SECTION V: STATISTICS
1. Representation of data:
(a) frequency distribution;
(b) histogram, bar chart and pie chart.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify and interpret frequency distribution tables;
ii. interpret information on histogram, bar chat and pie chart
2. Measures of Location:
(a) mean, mode and median of ungrouped and grouped data – (simple cases only);
(b) cumulative frequency.
Candidates should be able to:
i. calculate the mean, mode and median of ungrouped and grouped data (simple cases only);
ii. use ogive to find the median, quartiles and percentiles.
3. Measures of Dispersion:
range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation.
Candidates should be able to:
calculate the range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped and grouped data.
4. Permutation and Combination:
(a) Linear and circular arrangements;
(b) Arrangements involving repeated objects.
Candidates should be able to:
solve simple problems involving permutation and combination.
5. Probability:
(a) experimental probability (tossing of coin,
throwing of a dice etc);
(b) Addition and multiplication of probabilities
(mutual and independent cases).
Candidates should be able to:
solve simple problems in probability (including addition and multiplication).

RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adelodun A. A (2000) Distinction in Mathematics: Comprehensive Revision Text, (3rd Edition) Ado -Ekiti: FNPL.
Anyebe, J. A. B (1998) Basic Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools and Remedial Students in Higher/ institutions, Lagos: Kenny Moore.
Channon, J. B. Smith, A. M (2001) New General Mathematics for West Africa SSS 1 to 3, Lagos: Longman.
David -Osuagwu, M. et al (2000) New School Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools, Onitsha: Africana – FIRST Publishers.
Egbe. E et al (2000) Further Mathematics, Onitsha: Africana – FIRST Publishers
Ibude, S. O. et al (2003) Agebra and Calculus for Schools and Colleges: LINCEL Publishers.
Tuttuh – Adegun M. R. et al (1997), Further Mathematics Project Books 1 to 3, Ibadan: NPS Educational
PHYSICS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS
2. Scalars and Vectors
3. Motion
4.Projectiles:
5. Equilibrium of Forces
6. (a) Work, Energy and Power
7. Friction
8. Simple Machines
9. Elasticity
10. Pressure
11. Liquids At Rest
12. Temperature and Its Measurement
13. Thermal Expansion
14. Gas Laws
15. Quantity of Heat
16. Change of State
17. Vapours
18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory
19. Heat Transfer
20. Waves
21. Propagation of Sound Waves
22. Characteristics of Sound Waves
23. Light Energy
24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces
25. Refraction of Light Through at Plane and Curved Surfaces
26. Optical Instruments
27. (a) dispersion of light and colours
28. Electrostatics
29. Capacitors
30. Electric Cells
31. Current Electricity
32. Electrical Energy and Power
33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields
34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction
36. Simple A. C. Circuits
37. Conduction of Electricity Through;
38. Elementary Modern Physics
39. Introductory Electronics
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS
(a) Length, area and volume: Metre rule, Venier calipers Micrometer
Screw-guage, measuring cylinder
(b) Mass
(i) unit of mass
(ii) use of simple beam balance
(iii) concept of beam balance
(c) Time
(i) unit of time
(ii) time-measuring devices
(d) Fundamental physical quantities
(e) Derived physical quantities and their units
(i) Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units
(f) Dimensions
(i) definition of dimensions
(ii) simple examples
(g) Limitations of experimental measurements
(i) accuracy of measuring instruments
(ii) simple estimation of errors.
(iii) significant figures.
(iv) standard form.
(h) Measurement, position, distance and displacement
(i) concept of displacement
(ii) distinction between distance and displacement
(iii) concept of position and coordinates
(iv) frame of reference

Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the units of length, area and volume;
ii. use different measuring instruments;
iii. determine the lengths, surface areas and volume of regular and irregular bodies;
iv. identify the unit of mass;
v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart’s balance and chemical balance;
vi. identify the unit of time;
vii. use different time-measuring
devices;
viii. relate the fundamental physical quantities to their units;
ix. deduce the units of derived physical quantities;
x. determine the dimensions of physical quantities;
xi. use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;
xii. test the homogeneity of an equation;
xiii. determine the accuracy of measuring instruments;
xiv. estimate simple errors;
xv. express measurements in standard form.

Candidates should be able to:
i. use strings, meter ruler and engineering calipers, vernier calipers and micrometer, screw guage
ii. note the degree of accuracy
iii. identify distance travel in a specified direction
iv. use compass and protractor to locate points/directions
v. use Cartesians systems to locate positions in x-y plane
vi. plot graph and draw inference from the graph.
2. Scalars and Vectors
(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities
(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities
(iii) relative velocity
(iv) resolution of vectors into two perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between scalar and vector quantities;
ii. give examples of scalar and vector quantities;
iii. determine the resultant of two or more vectors;
iv. determine relative velocity;
v. resolve vectors into two perpendicular components;
vi. use graphical methods to solve vector problems;
3. Motion
(a) Types of motion:
translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random
(b) Relative motion
(c) causes of motion
(d) Types of force
(i) contact
(ii) force field
(e) linear motion
(i) speed, velocity and acceleration
(ii) equations of uniformly accelerated motion
(iii) motion under gravity
(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time graph
(v) instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
4.Projectiles:
(i) calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight from the ground and a height
(ii) applications of projectile motion
(g) Newton’s laws of motion:
(i) inertia, mass and force
(ii) relationship between mass and acceleration
(iii) impulse and momentum
(iv) force – time graph
(v) conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary)
(h) Motion in a circle:
(i) angular velocity and angular acceleration
(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces.
(iii) applications
(i) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):
(i) definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion
(ii) examples of systems that execute
S.H.M
(iii) period, frequency and amplitude of S.H.M
(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M
(v) simple treatment of energy change in S.H.M
(vi) force vibration and resonance (simple treatment)
(iii) conservative and non-conservative fields
(iv) acceleration due to gravity
(v) variation of g on the earth’s surface
(iv) distinction between mass and weight
(v) escape velocity
(vi) parking orbit and weightlessness
Candidates should be able to :
i. identify different types of motion ;
ii. solve numerical problem on collinear motion;
iii. identify force as cause of motion;
iv. identify push and pull as form of force
v. identify electric and magnetic attractions, gravitational pull as forms of field forces;
vi. differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration;
vii.deduce equations of uniformly accelerated motion;
viii. solve problems of motion under gravity;
ix. interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time graph;
x. compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration
xi. establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles;
xii. solve problems involving projectile motion;
xiii. solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum;
xiv. interpretation of area under force – time graph
xv. interpret Newton’s laws of motion;
xvi. compare inertia, mass and force;
xvii. deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration;
xviii. interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum and application
xix. establish expression for angular velocity, angular acceleration and centripetal force;
xx. solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle;
xxi. establish the relationship between period and frequency;
xxii. analyse the energy changes occurring during S.H.M
xxiii. identify different types of forced vibration
xxiv. enumerate applications of resonance.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the expression for gravitational force between two bodies;
ii. apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
iii. give examples of conservative and non-
conservative fields;
iv. deduce the expression for gravitational field potentials;
v. identify the causes of variation of g on the earth’s surface;
vi. differentiate between mass and weight;
vii. determine escape velocity
5. Equilibrium of Forces
(a) equilibrium of particles:
(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces
(ii) triangles and polygon of forces
(iii) Lami’s theorem
(b) principles of moments
(i) moment of a force
(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue)
(iii) applications
(c) conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces
(i) resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions,
(ii) resultant and equilibrant
(d) centre of gravity and stability
(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibra
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the conditions for the equilibrium of
coplanar forces to solve problems;
ii. use triangle and polygon laws of forces to
solve equilibrium problems;
iii. use Lami’s theorem to solve problems;
iv. analyse the principle of moment of a
force;
v. determine moment of a force and couple;
vi. describe some applications of moment of a force and couple;
vii. apply the conditions for the equilibrium
of rigid bodies to solve problems;
viii. resolve forces into two perpendicular
directions;
ix. determine the resultant and equilibrant
of forces;
x. differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.
6. (a) Work, Energy and Power
(i) definition of work, energy and power
(ii) forms of energy
(vii) conservation of energy
(iv) qualitative treatment between different
forms of energy
(viii) interpretation of area under the force-distance curve
(b) Energy and society
(i) sources of energy
(ii) renewable and non-renewable energy eg
coal, crude oil etc
(iii) uses of energy
(iv) energy and development
(v) energy diversification
(vi) environmental impact of energy eg global warming, green house effect and spillage
(vii) energy crises
(viii)conversion of energy
(ix) devices used in energy production.
(c) Dams and energy production
(i) location of dams
(ii) energy production
(d) nuclear energy
(e) solar energy
(i) solar collector
(ii) solar panel for energy supply.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between work, energy and power;
ii. compare different forms of energy, giving examples;
iii. apply the principle of conservation of energy;
iv. examine the transformation between different
forms of energy;
v. interpret the area under the force -distance curve.
vi. solve numerical problems in work, energy and power.
Candidates should be able to:
i. itemize the sources of energy
ii. distinguish between renewable and non-
renewable energy, examples should be
given
iii. identify methods of energy transition
iv. explain the importance of energy in the development of the society
v. analyze the effect of energy use to the environment
vi. identify the impact of energy on the environment
vii. identify energy sources that are friendly or hazardous to the environment
viii. identify energy uses in their immediate environment
ix. suggests ways of safe energy use
x. state different forms of energy conversion.
7. Friction
(i) static and dynamic friction
(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its determination.
(iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction
(iv) reduction of friction
(v) qualitative treatment of viscosity and
terminal velocity.
(vi) Stoke’s law.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between static and dynamic friction
ii.determine the coefficient of limiting friction;
iii.compare the advantages and disadvantages of
friction;
iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;
v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity;
vi. apply Stoke’s law.
8. Simple Machines
(i) definition of simple machines
(ii) types of machines
(iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of machines
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify different types of simple machines;
ii. solve problems involving simple machines.
9. Elasticity
(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus
(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring force
(iii.) work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings
(i) work done per unit volume in springs and elastic strings.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret force-extension curves;
ii. interpret Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus of a material;
iii use spring balance to measure force;
iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic strings
10. Pressure
(a) Atmospheric Pressure
(i) definition of atmospheric pressure
(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa)
(iii) measurement of pressure
(iv) simple mercury barometer,
aneroid barometer and manometer.
(v) variation of pressure with height
(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.
(b) Pressure in liquids
(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = ?gh)
(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle)
(iii) application
Candidates should be able to:
i. recognize the S.I units of pressure; (Pa)
ii. identify pressure measuring instruments;
iii. relate the variation of pressure to height;
iv. use a barometer as an altimeter.
v. determine the relationship between pressure,
depth and density;
vi apply the principle of transmission of pressure
in liquids to solve problems;
vii. determine and apply the principle of pressure in liquid;
11. Liquids At Rest
(i) determination of density of solids and liquids
(ii) definition of relative density
(iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between density and relative density of substances;
ii. determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid
iii. apply Archimedes’ principle and law of
floatation to solve problems
12. Temperature and Its Measurement
(i) concept of temperature
(ii) thermometric properties
(iii) calibration of thermometers
(iv) temperature scales -Celsius and Kelvin.
(v) types of thermometers
(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to another
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify thermometric properties of materials that are used for different thermometers;
ii. calibrate thermometers;
iii. differentiate between temperature scales e.g
Celsius and Kelvin.
iv. compare the types of thermometers;
vi. convert from one scale of temperature to
another.
13. Thermal Expansion
(a) Solids
(i) definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities
(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines
(iii) relationship between different expansivities
(b) Liquids
(i) volume expansivity
(ii) real and apparent expansivities
(iii) determination of volume expansivity
(iv) anomalous expansion of water
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine linear and volume expansivities;
ii. assess the effects and applications of thermal expansivities
iii. determine the relationship between different expansivities.
iv. determine volume, apparent, and real
expansivities of liquids;
v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water.
14. Gas Laws
(i) Boyle’s law (isothermal process)
(ii) Charle’s law (isobaric process)
(iii) Pressure law (volumetric process
(iv) absolute zero of temperature
(v) general gas quation
((frac{PV}{T}) = constant )
(vi) ideal gas equation
Eg Pv = nRT
(vii) Van der waal gas
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the gas laws;
ii. use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems.
iii. interprete Van der waal equation for one mole of a real gas
15. Quantity of Heat
(i) heat as a form of energy
(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids
(iii) determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method and Newton’s law of cooling
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity;
ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat
capacity using simple methods;
iii. solve numerical problems.
16. Change of State
(i) latent heat
(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling
(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points.
(ii) application in appliances
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;
ii. differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling;
iii. examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.
iv. solve numerical problems
17. Vapours
(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours
(ii) relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling
(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method
(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain
(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity
(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between saturated and unsaturated
vapours;
ii. relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;
iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tube method
iv. differentiate between dew point, humidity and
relative humidity;
vi. estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.
vii. solve numerical problems
18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory
(a) Molecular nature of matter
(i) atoms and molecules
(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact etc
(iii) examples and applications.
(b) Kinetic Theory
(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory
(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between atoms and molecules;
ii. use molecular theory to explain Brownian
motion , diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;
iii. examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;
iv. interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by
gases Boyle’s law, Charle’s law melting,boiling vaporization, change in temperature,
evaporation, etc.
19. Heat Transfer
(i) conduction, convection and radiation as modes of heat transfer
(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux
(iii) effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.
(iv) the conductivities of common materials.
(v) the thermos flask
(vii) land and sea breeze
(viii) engines
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between conduction, convection and radiation as modes of heat transfer;
ii. solve problems on temperature gradient, thermal
conductivity and heat flux;
iii. assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;
iv. compare the conductivities of common
materials;
v. relate the component part of the working of the thermos flask;
vi. differentiate between land and sea breeze.
vii. to analyse the principles of operating internal combustion jet engines, rockets
20. Waves
(a) Production and Propagation
(i) wave motion,
(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves
(iii) waves as mode of energy transfer
(iv) distinction between particle motion and wave motion
(v) relationship between frequency, wavelength and wave velocity ((V = f lambda))
(vi) phase difference, wave number and wave vector
(vii) progressive wave equation e.g
Y = A Sin (frac{2pi}{lambda}(vt pm X))
(b) Classification
(i) types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves
(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves
(iii) stationary and progressive waves
(iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.
(c) Characteristics/Properties
(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane Polarization
(ii) superposition of waves e.g interference
(iii) beats
(iv) doppler effects (qualitative treatment only)
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret wave motion;
ii. identify vibrating systems as sources of waves;
iii use waves as a mode of energy transfer;
iv distinguish between particle motion and wave
motion;
v. relate frequency and wave length to wave
velocity;
vi. determine phase difference, wave number and wave vector
vii. use the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters;
viii. differentiate between mechanical and
electromagnetic waves;
ix. differentiate between longitudinal and
transverse waves
x. distinguish between stationary and progressive waves;
xi. indicate the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank;
vii. differentiate between reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane polarization of waves;
viii. analyse the principle of superposition of waves.
ix. solve numerical problems on waves
x. explain the phenomenon of beat, beat frequency and uses
xi. explain Doppler effect of sound and application
21. Propagation of Sound Waves
(i) the necessity for a material medium
(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
(iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications
(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberations
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the need for a material medium in the
propagation of sound waves;
ii. compare the speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;
iii. relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air;
iv. solve problem on echoes, reverberation and speed
iv. compare the disadvantages and advantages of echoes.
vi. solve problems on echo, reverberation and speed of sound
22. Characteristics of Sound Waves
(i) noise and musical notes
(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and their application to musical instruments;
(iii) simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns
(F_o = frac{1}{2L} sqrt{ T over mu} (mu = m/l))
(iv) acoustic examples of resonance
(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between noise and musical notes;
ii. analyse quality, pitch, intensity and loudness of sound notes;
iii. evaluate the application of (ii) above in the construction of musical instruments;
iv. identify overtones by vibrating stings and air columns;
v. itemize acoustical examples of resonance;
vi. determine the frequencies of notes emitted by air columns in open and closed pipes in relation to their lengths.
23. Light Energy
(a) Sources of Light:
(i) natural and artificial sources of light
(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects
(b) Propagation of light
(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of light
(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse
(iii) the pin-hole camera.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the natural and artificial sources of light;
ii. differentiate between luminous and non
luminous objects;
iii. relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of
light;
iv. interpret the formation of shadows and eclipses;
v. solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera.
24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces
(i) laws of reflection.
(ii) application of reflection of light
(iii) formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams
(iii) use of the mirror formula
({1 over f} = {1 over u} + {1 over v})
(v) linear magnification
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the natural and artificial sources of light;
ii. differentiate between luminous and non luminous objects;
iii. relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light;
iv. interpret the formation of shadows and eclipses;
v. solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera.
25. Refraction of Light Through at Plane and Curved Surfaces
(i) explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media.
(ii) laws of refraction
(iii) definition of refractive index of a medium
(iv) determination of refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law
(v) real and apparent depth and lateral displacement
(vi) critical angle and total internal reflection
(b) Glass Prism
(i) use of the minimum deviation formula
(U = frac{sinleft [ frac{A + D}{2} right ]}{sinleft [ frac{A}{2} right ]})
(ii) type of lenses
(iii) use of lens formula
({1 over f} = {1 over u} + {1 over v}) and Newton’s formular (F2 = ab)
(iv) magnification
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of reflection;
ii. illustrate the formation of images by plane,
concave and convex mirrors;
iii. apply the mirror formula to solve optical
problems;
iv. determine the linear magnification;
v. apply the laws of reflection of light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope
and the sextant.
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of reflection;
ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law;
iii. determine the refractive index using the
principle of real and apparent depth;
iv. determine the conditions necessary for total internal reflection;
v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars, optical fibre;
vi. apply the principles of total internal reflection to the formation of mirage;
vii. use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems;
viii. determine the magnification of an image;
ix. calculate the refractive index of a glass prism using minimum deviation formula.
26. Optical Instruments
(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes,
projectors, cameras and the human eye
(physiological details of the eye are not required)
(ii) power of a lens
(iii) angular magnification
(iv) near and far points
(v) sight defects and their corrections
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the principles of operation of optical
instruments to solve problems;
ii. distinguish between the human eye and the cameras;
iii. calculate the power of a lens;
iv. evaluate the angular magnification of optical instruments;
v. determine the near and far points;
vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.
27. (a) dispersion of light and colours
(i) dispersion of white light by a triangular prism
(ii) production of pure spectrum
(iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction
(iv) colour of objects and colour filters
(v)rainbow
(b)electgromagnetic spectrum
(i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify primary colours and obtain secondary
colours by mixing;
ii. understand the formation of rainbow
iii. deduces why objects have colours;
iv. relate the expression for gravitational force between two bodies;
v. apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;
vi. analyse colours using colour filters
vii. analyse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses
28. Electrostatics
(i) existence of positive and negative charges in matter
(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and induction
(iii) electroscope
(iv) Coulomb’s inverse square law, electric field and potential
(v) electric field intensity and potential difference
(vi) electric discharge and lightning
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify charges;
ii. examine uses of an electroscope;
iii. apply Coulomb’s square law of electrostatics to solve problems;
iv. deduce expressions for electric field intensity and potential difference;
v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges;
vi. analyse the distribution of charges on a
conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors.
29. Capacitors
(i) Types and functions of capacitors
(ii) parallel plate capacitors
(iii) capacitance of a capacitor
(iv) the relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates.
( C = {EA over d})
(v) capacitors in series and parallel
(vi) energy stored in a capacitor
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine uses of capacitors;
ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors;
iii. determine the capacitance of a capacitor;
iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor;
v. solve problems involving the arrangement of capacitor;
vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors
30. Electric Cells
(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;
(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)
(iii) lead -acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron (Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium
(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail
treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not
required
(v) arrangement of cells
(vi) Efficiency of a cell
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their correction
ii. compare different types of cells including solar cell;
iii. compare the advantages of lead-acid and Nikel iron accumulator;
iv. solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells.
31. Current Electricity
(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost Volt
(ii) Ohm’s law
(iii) measurement of resistance
(iv) meter bridge
(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their combination
(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.
(v) electrical networks
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between emf, p.d., current and internal resistant of a cell;
ii. apply Ohm’s law to solve problems;
iii. use metre bridge to calculate resistance;
iv. compute effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangement of resistors;
v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor;
vi. measure emf. current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer.
vii. identify the advantages of the potentiometer
viii. apply kirchoff’s law in electrical networks
32. Electrical Energy and Power
(i) concepts of electrical energy and power
(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and power
(iii) electric power transmission
(v) heating effects of electric current.
(vi) electrical wiring of houses
(vii) use of fuses
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems;
ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer;
iii. identify the heating effects of current and its uses;
iv. identify the advantages of parallel arrangement over series
v. determine the fuse rating | awajis.com/jamb
33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields
(i) natural and artificial magnets
(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel
(iii) methods of making magnets and demagnetization
(iv) concept of magnetic field
(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet
(vi) magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid
(vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination
(viii) flux and flux density
(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth’s surface
(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.
Candidates should be able to:
i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets
ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;
iii. identify the various methods of making magnets and demagnetizing magnets;
iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism;
v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets are placed together pole to pole;
vi. determine the flux of a current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid including the polarity of the solenoid;
vii. determine the flux pattern of a magnet placed in the earth’s magnetic fields;
viii. identify the magnetic elements of the earth’s flux;
ix. determine the variation of earth’s magnetic
field on the earth’s surface;
x. examine the applications of the earth’s magnetic
field.
34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
(i) quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current-carrying conductors
(ii) force on a charge moving in a magnetic field;
(iii) the d. c. motor
(iv) electromagnets
(v) carbon microphone
(vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments
(vii) conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers
(viii) sensitivity of a galvanometer
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using Fleming’s left-hand rule;
ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces
between two parallel current-carrying
conductors using diagrams;
iii. determine the relationship between the force, magnetic field strength, velocity and the angle through which the charge enters the field;
iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor;
v. analyse the principle of electromagnets and give examples of its application;
vi. compare moving iron and moving coil
instruments;
vii. convert a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter.
viii. identify the factors affecting the sensitivity of a galvanometer
35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction
(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction
(ii) factors affecting induced emf
(iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy
(iv) a.c. and d.c generators
(v) transformers
(vi) the induction coil
(b) Inductance
(i) explanation of inductance
(ii) unit of inductance
(iii) energy stored in an inductor
(E = {1 over 2} I^2 L)
(iv) application/uses of inductors
(ix) Eddy Current
(i) reduction of eddy current
(ii) applications of eddy current
Candidates should be able to:
i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction;
ii. identify factors affecting induced emf;
iii. recognize how Lenz’s law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy;
iv. interpret the diagrammatic set up of A. C. generators;
v. identify the types of transformer;
vi. examine principles of operation of transformers;
vii. assess the functions of an induction coil;
viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil;
ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor;
x. recognize units of inductance;
xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement;
xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor;
xiii. examine the applications of inductors;
xiv. describe the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced.
xv. determine ways by which eddy currents can be used.
36. Simple A. C. Circuits
(i) explanation of a.c. current and voltage
(ii) peak and r.m.s. values
(iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor;
(iv) a.c source connected to a capacitor- capacitive reactance
(v) a.c source connected to an inductor inductive reactance
(vi) series R-L-C circuits
(vii) vector diagram, phase angle and power factor
(viii) resistance and impedance
(ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits
(x) resonance and resonance frequency
(F_o = frac{1}{2pisqrt{LC}})
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify a.c. current and d.c. voltage
ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values of a.c.;
iii. determine the phase difference between current and voltage
iv. interpret series R-L-C circuits;
v. analyse vector diagrams;
vi. calculate the effective voltage, reactance and impedance;
vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is at resonance;
viii. determine the resonant frequency of
R-L-C arrangement;
ix. determine the instantaneous power, average power and the power factor in a. c. circuits
37. Conduction of Electricity Through;
(a) liquids
(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte
(ii) concept of electrolysis
(iii) Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
(iv) application of electrolysis, e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.
(b) gases
(i) discharge through gases (qualitative treatment only)
(ii) application of conduction of electricity through gases
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes;
ii. analyse the processes of electrolysis
iii. apply Faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve problems;
iv. analyse discharge through gases;
v. determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases.
38. Elementary Modern Physics
(i) models of the atom and their limitations
(ii) elementary structure of the atom;
(iii) energy levels and spectra
(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions;
(v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential
(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and
photoelectric effects
(vii) simple method of production of x-rays
(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays
(xiii) half-life and decay constant
(xiv) simple ideas of production of energy by fusion and fission
(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s Energy equation
([Delta E = Delta MC^2])
(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)
(xvii) electron diffraction
(xviii) the uncertainty principle
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the models of the atom and write their limitations;
ii. describe elementary structure of the atom;
iii. differentiate between the energy levels and spectra of atoms;
iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric emission;
v. apply Einstein’s equation to solve problems of photoelectric effect.
vi. calculate the stopping potential;
vii. relate some application of thermionic emission and photoelectric effects;
viii. interpret the process involved in the
production of x-rays.
ix identify some properties and applications of x-rays
x. analyse elementary radioactivity
xi. distinguish between stable and unstable
nuclei;
xii. identify isotopes of an element;
xiii. compare the properties of alpha, beta and gamma rays;
xiv. relate half-life and decay constant of a
radioactive element;
xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’s energy equation;
xvi. analyse wave particle duality;
xvii. solve some numerical problems based on the uncertainty principle and wave – particle duality
39. Introductory Electronics
(i) distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators (elementary knowledge of band gap is required)
(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
(iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification
(iv) n-type and p-type semiconductors
(v) elementary knowledge of diodes and transistors
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between conductors, semi-
conductors and insulators;
ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors;
iii. distinguish between electron and hole carriers;
iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type
semiconductor;
v. analyse diodes and transistor
vi. relate diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Ike E.E (2014) Essential Principles of Physics, Jos ENIC publishers
Ike E.E (2014) Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, Jos ENIC publishers
Nelson M. (1977) Fundamentals of Physics, Great Britain, Hart Davis Education
Nelson M. and Parker ? (1989) Advance Level Physics, (Sixth Edition) Heinemann
Okeke P.N and Anyakoha M.W. (2000) Senior Secondary School Physics, Lagos, Pacific Printers
Olumuyionwa A. and Ogunkoya O. O (1992) Comprehensive Certificate Physics, Ibadan: University Press Plc.
CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
1. Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances
2. Chemical combination
3. Atomic structure and bonding
4. Air
5. Water
6. Solubility
7. Environmental Pollution
8. Acids, bases and salts
9. Oxidation and reduction
10. Electrolysis
11. Energy changes
12. Chemical equilibra
13. Non-metals and their compounds
14. Metals and their compounds
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
1. Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances
(a) Pure and impure substances
(b) Boiling and melting points.
(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures
(d) Chemical and physical changes.
(e) Separation processes:
evaporation, simple and fractional distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper and column chromatography, simple and fractional crystallization, magnetization, decantation.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between pure and impure substances;
(ii) use boiling and melting points as criteria for purity of chemical substances;
(iii) distinguish between elements, compounds and mixture;
(iv) differentiate between chemical and physical changes;
(v) identify the properties of the components of a mixture;
(vi) specify the principle involved in each separation method.
(vii) apply the basic principle of separation processes in everyday life.
2. Chemical combination
Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple proportions, law of conservation of matter, Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes, Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae, equations and their uses, relative atomic mass
based on 12C=12, the mole concept and Avogadro’s number.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) perform simple calculations involving formulae, equations/chemical composition and the mole concept;
(ii) deduce the chemical laws from given expressions/statements/data;
(iii) interpret graphical representations related
to these laws;
(iv) deduce the stoichiometry of chemical reactions.
3. Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws
(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter;
(i) melting,
(ii) vapourization
(iii) boiling
(iv) freezing
(v) condensation
in terms of molecular motion and Brownian movement.
(b)(i) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
(ii) The ideal gas equation (PV = nRT).
(iii) The relationship between vapour density of gases and the relative molecular mass.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) apply the theory to distinguish between solids, liquids and gases;
(ii) deduce reasons for change of state;
(iii) draw inferences based on molecular motion;
(iv) deduce gas laws from given expressions/ statements;
(v) interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
(vi) perform simple calculations based on these laws, equations and relationships
4. Atomic structure and bonding
(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions, the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford, Moseley, Thompson and Bohr.
(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration, atomic number, mass number and isotopes; specific examples should be drawn from elements of atomic number 1 to 20.
(iii) Shapes of s and p orbitals.
(b) The periodic table and periodicity of elements, presentation of the periodic table with a view to recognizing families of elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the noble gases and transition metals. The variation of the following properties: ionization energy, ionic radii, electron affinity and electronegativity.
(c) Chemical bonding.
Electrovalency and covalency, the electron configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen bonding and metallic bonding as special types of electrovalency and covalency respectively; coordinate bond as a type of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes like [Fe(CN)6]3-, [Fe(CN)6]4-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+ and [Ag(NH3)2]+; van der Waals’ forces should be mentioned as a special type of bonding forces.
(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, O2, C12,HCl and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and tetrahedral; (CH4) and pyramidal (NH3).
(e) Nuclear Chemistry:
(i) Radioactivity – Types and properties of
radiations
(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations,
uses and applications of natural and
artificial radioactivity.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between atoms, molecules and ions;
(ii) identify the contributions of these scientists to
the development of the atomic structure;
(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons and
electrons from atomic and mass numbers of
an atom;
(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement of
electrons in an atom;
(v) identity common elements exhibiting isotopy;
(vi) relate isotopy to mass number;
(vii) perform simple calculations relating to isotopy;
(viii) differentiate between the shapes of the orbitals;
(ix) determine the number of electrons in s and
p atomic orbitals;
(x) relate atomic number to the position of an
element on the periodic table;
(xi) relate properties of groups of elements on the periodic table;
(xii) identify reasons for variation in properties
across the period and down the groups.
(xiii) differentiate between the different types
of bonding.
(xiv) deduce bond types based on electron
configurations;
(xv) relate the nature of bonding to properties
of compounds;
(xvi) differentiate between the various shapes
of molecules
xvii) distinguish between ordinary chemical
reaction and nuclear reaction;
(xviii) differentiate between natural and
artificial radioactivity;
(xix) compare the properties of the different
types of nuclear radiations;
(xx) compute simple calculations on the
half-life of a radioactive material;
(xxi) balance simple nuclear equation;
(xxii) identify the various applications of
radioactivity.
5. Air
(a) The natural gaseous constituents and their proportion in the air.
– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon (IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon and neon).
(b) Air as a mixture and some uses of the noble gas.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) deduce reason (s) for the existence of
air as a mixture;
(ii) identify the principle involved in the
separation of air components;
(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in the
composition of air in the environment;
(iv) specify the uses of some of the
constituents of air.
6. Water
(a) Water as a product of the combustion of hydrogen and its composition by volume.
(b) Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases dissolved in water and their biological significance.
(c) Hard and soft water:
Temporary and permanent
hardness and methods of softening
hard water.
(d) Treatment of water for town supply.
(e) Water of crystallization, efflorescence,
deliquescence and hygroscopy. Examples of the substances exhibiting these properties and their uses.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various uses of water;
(ii) identity the effects of dissolved atmospheric
gases in water;
(iii) distinguish between the properties of hard and
soft water;
(iv) determine the causes of hardness;
(v) identify methods of removal of hardness;
(vi) describe the processes involved in the
treatment of water for town supply;
(vii) distinguish between these phenomena;
(viii) identify the various compounds that exhibit
these phenomena.
7. Solubility
(a) Unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated solutions. Solubility curves and simple deductions from them, (solubility defined in terms of mole per dm3) and simple calculations.
(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints
and the use of such solvents
for the removal of stains.
(c) False solution (Suspensions and colloids):
Properties and examples.
Harmattan haze and water paints as examples
of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray,
emulsion paints and rubber solution as
examples of colloids.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the different types of
solutions;
(ii) interpret solubility curves;
(iii) calculate the amount of solute that can
dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a
given temperature;
(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;
(v) relate nature of solvents to their uses;
(vi) differentiate among true solution,
suspension and colloids;
(vii) compare the properties of a true solution
and a false’ solution.
(viii) provide typical examples of suspensions
and colloids.
8. Environmental Pollution
(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.
(b) Air pollution:
Examples of air pollutants such as
H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,
chlorofluorocarbons and dust.
(c) Water pollution
Sewage and oil pollution should be
known.
(d) Soil pollution:
Oil spillage, Biodegradable and
non-biodegradable pollutants.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the different types of pollution and
pollutants;
(ii) specify different sources of pollutants
(iii) classify pollutants as biodegradable and
non-biodegradable;
(iv) specify the effects of pollution on the
environment;
(v) identify measures for control of
environmental pollution.
9. Acids, bases and salts
(a) General characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators, basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic and
double salts. An acid defined as a substance whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+ions or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and tartaric acids as examples of naturally occurring organic acids, alums as examples
of double salts, preparation of salts by neutralization, precipitation and action of acids on metals. Oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
(b) Qualitative comparison of the
conductances of molar solutions of
strong and weak acids and bases,
relationship between conductance and
amount of ions present.
(c) pH and pOH scale; Simple calculations
(d) Acid/base titrations.
(e) Hydrolysis of salts: Principle
Simple examples such as
NH4Cl, AlCl3, Na2CO3 and CH3COONa
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between the properties of
acids and bases;
(ii) identify the different types of acids
and bases;
(iii) determine the basicity of acids;
(iv) differentiate between acidity and
alkalinity using acid/base indicators;
(v) identify the various methods of
preparation of salts;
(vi) classify different types of salts;
(vii) relate degree of dissociation to strength
of acids and bases;
(viii) relate degree of dissociation to
conductance;
(ix) perform simple calculations on pH and pOH;
(x) identify the appropriate acid-base
indicator;
(xi) interpret graphical representation of
titration curves;
(xii) perform simple calculations based on
the mole concept;
(xiii) balance equations for the hydrolysis
of salts;
(xiv) deduce the properties (acidic, basic,
neutral) of the resultant solution.
10. Oxidation and reduction
(a) Oxidation in terms of the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen or
addition of hydrogen.
(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer.
(d) Use of oxidation numbers. Oxidation and reduction treated as change in oxidation number and use of oxidation numbers in balancing simple equations.
(e) IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds using oxidation number.
(f) Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the various forms of expressing
oxidation and reduction;
(ii) classify chemical reactions in terms of
oxidation or reduction;
(iii) balance redox reaction equations;
(iv) deduce the oxidation number of chemical
species;
(v) compute the number of electron transfer
in redox reactions;
(vi) identify the name of redox species in a reaction
(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducing
agents in redox reactions.
(viii) apply oxidation number in naming inorganic compounds
(ix) relate reagents to their oxidizing and reducing abilities.
11. Electrolysis
(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
(b) (i) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4, aqueous
CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute and concentrated NaC1 solutions and fused NaC1
(ii) Factors affecting discharge of ions at the electrodes.
(c) Uses of electrolysis:
Purification of metals e.g. copper and
production of elements and compounds
(Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).
(d) Electrochemical cells:
Redox series (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,)
half-cell reactions and electrode potentials. (Simple calculations only).
(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,
cathodic protection of metals,
painting, electroplating and coating
with grease or oil as ways of
preventing iron from corrosion.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) distinguish between electrolytes and non-
electrolytes;
(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as a
mole of electrons.
(iii) identify suitable electrodes for different
electrolytes.
(iv) specify the chemical reactions at the
electrodes;
(v) determine the products at the electrodes;
(vi) identify the factors that affect the products
of electrolysis;
(vii) specify the different areas of application of
electrolysis;
(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;
(ix) calculate electrode potentials using half-
cell reaction equations;
(x) determine the different areas of
application of electrolytic processes;
(xi) identify methods used in protecting metals.
12. Energy changes
(a) Energy changes((Delta)H) accompanying physical
and chemical changes:
dissolution of substances in/or
reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,
K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+(Delta)H) and exothermic (-(Delta)H) reactions.
(b) Entropy as an order-disorder
phenomenon: simple illustrations
like mixing of gases and dissolution
of salts.
(c) Spontaneity of reactions:
(Delta)G(^theta) = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, (Delta)G
greater or less than zero as a criterion for
non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) determine the types of heat changes
((Delta)H) in physical and chemical processes;
(ii) interpret graphical representations of heat
changes;
(iii) relate the physical state of a substance
to the degree of orderliness;
(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity
of a reaction ;
(v) relate (Delta)H(^theta), (Delta)S(^theta) and (Delta)G(^theta) as the driving
forces for chemical reactions;
(vi) solve simple problems based on the
relationships (Delta)G(^theta)= (Delta)H(^theta) -T(Delta)S(^theta)
13. Rates of Chemical Reaction
(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors which can change the rate of a chemical reaction:
(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl
(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure may be used as concentration term.
(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction
between marble and HCl with
marble in
(i) powdered form
(ii) lumps of the same mass.
(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition
of H2O2 or KClO3 in the
presence or absence of MnO2
(b) Reaction rate curves.
(c) Activation energy
Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and
the collision theory, effect of light on some
reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors that affect the rates of a chemical reaction;
(ii) determine the effects of temperature on
the rate of reactions;
(iii) examine the effect of concentration/pressure on
the rate of a chemical reaction;
(iv) describe how the rate of a chemical reaction is
affected by surface area;
(v) determine the types of catalysts suitable for different reactions and their effects;
(vi) determine ways of moderating these effects in chemical reactions.
(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;
(viii) solve simple problems on the rate of reactions;
(ix) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic theory of matter.
(x) examine the significance of activation energy to chemical reactions.
(xi) deduce the value of activation energy (Ea) from reaction rate curves.
14. Chemical equilibra
Reversible reactions and factors governing
the equilibrium position. Dynamic
equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant. Simple examples to
include action of steam on iron and N2O4 2NO2.
No calculation will be required.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) identify the factors that affects the position
of equilibrium of a chemical reaction;
(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the position
of equilibrium;
(iii) determine the effects of these factors on
equilibrium constant.
15. Non-metals and their compounds
(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from
water gas and cracking of petroleum
fractions, laboratory preparation,
properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative
element of the halogen. Laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics and insecticides.
Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid: Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for chlorides.
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen:
Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Commercial production from liquid air. Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur:
Uses and allotropes:
preparation of allotropes is not expected . Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV) oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis. Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV), Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses. Test for SO42-.
Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating agent. Test for S2-
(d) Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid air
(iii) Ammonia:
Laboratory and industrial
preparations (Haber Process only),
properties and uses, ammonium salts
and their uses, oxidation of
ammonia to nitrogen (IV)
oxide and trioxonitrate (V)
acid.
Test for NH4+
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:
Laboratory preparation
from ammonia;
properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-
action of heat and uses. Test for NO3-
(v) Oxides of nitrogen:
Properties.
The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and
properties
(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide-
Laboratory preparation, properties
and uses. Action of heat on
trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for
CO32-
(iii) Carbon(II) oxide:
Laboratory preparation, properties
including its effect on blood;
sources of carbon (II) oxide to
include charcoal, fire and exhaust
fumes.
(iv) Coal: Different types, products
obtained from destructive
distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.
Manufacture of synthetic gas and
uses.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and
industrial preparation of these gases and
their compounds.
(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their
compounds.
(iii) compare the properties of these gases and
their compounds.
(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its
compounds;
(v) determine the specific test for each gas and its
compounds.
(vi) determine specific tests for Cl-, SO42-, SO32-,
S2-, NH4+, NO3-, CO32-, HCO?3
(vii) predict the reagents for preparation,
properties and uses HCl(g) and HCl(aq);
(viii) identify the allotropes of oxygen;
(ix) determine the significance of ozone to
our environment.
(x) classify the oxides of oxygen and their
properties
(xi) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their
uses;
(xii) predict the reagents for preparation, properties
and uses of SO2 and H2S;
(xiii) specify the preparations of H2SO4 and H2SO3,
their properties and uses.
(xiv) specify the laboratory and industrial
preparation of NH3;
(xv) identify the properties and uses of NH3;
(xvi) identify reagents for the laboratory
preparation of HNO3, its properties and
uses;
(xvii) specify the properties of N2O, NO, NO2 gases.
(xviii) examine the relevance of nitrogen cycle
to the environment.
(xix) identify allotropes of carbon;
(xx) predict reagents for the laboratory
preparation of CO2;
(xxi) specify the properties of CO2 and its
uses;
(xxii) determine the reagents for the
laboratory preparation of CO;
(xxiii) predict the effects of CO on human;
(xxiv) identify the different forms of coal:
(xxv) determine their uses;
(xxvi) specify the products of the destructive distillation of wood and coal;
(xxvii) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.
16. Metals and their compounds
(a) General properties of metals
(b) Alkali metals e.g. sodium
(i) Sodium hydroxide:-
Production by electrolysis of
brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and lead ions.
Uses including precipitation of
metallic hydroxides.
(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)
and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV): Production by Solvay process, properties and uses, e.g.
Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.
(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in
sea water and uses, the economic
importance of sea water and the
recovery of sodium chloride.
(c) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;
calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide
and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);
Properties and uses. Preparation of calcium oxide from sea shells, the
chemical composition of cement
and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+.
(d) Aluminium
Purification of bauxite, electrolytic
extraction, properties and uses of aluminium and its compounds. Test for A13+
(e) Tin
Extraction from its ores.
Properties and uses.
(f) Metals of the first transition series.
Characteristic properties:
(i) electron configuration
(ii) oxidation states
(iii) complex ion formation
(iv) formation of coloured ions
(v) catalysis
(g) Iron
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses, different forms
of iron and their properties and
advantages of steel over iron.
Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+
(h) Copper
Extraction from sulphide and oxide
ores, properties and uses of copper.
Preparation and uses of copper( II )
tetraoxosulphate(VI). Test for Cu2+
(i) Alloy
Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type- metal, duralumin, soft solder,
permallory and alnico (constituents and
uses only).
Candidates should be able to:
(i) specify the general properties of metals;
(ii) determine the method of extraction suitable
for each metal;
(iii) relate the methods of extraction to the
properties for the metals;
(iv) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;
(v) specify the uses of the metals;
(vi) determine specific test for metallic ions;
(vii) determine the process for the production
of the compounds of these metals;
(viii) compare the chemical reactivities of the
compounds;
(ix) specify the uses of these compounds;
(x) specify the chemical composition of cement.
(xi) describe the method of purification of bauxite;
(xii) specify the ores of tin;
(xiii) relate the method of extraction to its properties;
(xiv) specify the uses of tin;
(xv) identify the general properties of the first
transition metals;
(xvi) deduce reasons for the specific properties
of the transition metals;
(xvii) determine the IUPAC names of simple
transition metal complexes
(xviii) determine the suitable method of
extraction of iron;
(xix) specify the properties and uses of iron;
(xx) identify the different forms of iron, their compositions, properties and uses.
(xxi) identify the appropriate method of
extraction of copper from its compounds;
(xxii) relate the properties of copper and its
compound to their uses.
(xxiii) specify the method for the preparation of
CuSO4;
(xxiv) specify the constituents and uses of the
various alloys mentioned.
(xxv) compare the properties and uses of alloys
to pure metals.
17. Organic Compounds
An introduction to the tetravalency of
carbon, the general formula, IUPAC
nomenclature and the determination of
empirical formula of each class of the
organic compounds mentioned below.
(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons
(i) Alkanes
Homologous series in relation
to physical properties,
substitution reaction and a few
examples and uses of halogenated
products. Isomerism: structural
only (examples on isomerism should
not go beyond six carbon atoms).
Petroleum: composition, fractional distillation and major products; cracking and reforming, Petrochemicals – starting materials of organic syntheses, quality of petrol and meaning of octane number.
(ii) Alkenes
Isomerism: structural and geometric
isomerism, additional and
polymerization reactions, polythene
and synthetic rubber as examples of
products of polymerization and its use
in vulcanization.
(iii) Alkynes
Ethyne – production from action of
water on carbides, simple reactions and
properties of ethyne.
(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –
structure, properties and uses.
(c) Alkanols
Primary, secondary, tertiary – production
of ethanol by fermentation and from
petroleum by-products. Local examples
of fermentation and distillation, e.g.
gin from palm wine and other local
sources and glycerol as a polyhydric
alkanol.
Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a distinguishing test among primary, secondary
and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).
(d) Alkanals and alkanones.
Chemical test to distinguish between
alkanals and alkanones.
(e) Alkanoic acids.
Chemical reactions; neutralization and
esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid
as an example of a dicarboxylic acid
and benzene carboxylic acid as an
example of an aromatic acid.
(f) Alkanoates
Formation from alkanoic acids and
alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.
Saponification:
Production of soap and margarine from
alkanoates and distinction between
detergents and soaps.
(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary,
and tertiary
(h) Carbohydrates
Classification – mono-, di- and polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests for simple sugars and reaction with concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid. Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses of sugar and starch in the production of alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.
(i) Proteins:
Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests (Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and xanthoproteic)
Enzymes and their functions.
(j) Polymers:
Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and condensation polymerization.
– Methods of preparation, examples and uses.
Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) derive the name of organic compounds from
their general formulae;
(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure
(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability
to form chains of compound (catenation);
(iv) classify compounds according to their
functional groups;
(v) derive empirical formula and molecular
formula, from given data;
(vi) relate structure/functional groups to specific
properties;
(vii) derive various isomeric forms from a given
formula;
(viii) distinguish between the different types of
isomerism;
(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbons;
(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbons by their properties;
(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;
(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture
of hydrocarbons;
(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrocarbons to their
properties and uses;
(xiv) relate transformation processes to quality
improvement of the fractions;
(xv) distinguish between various polymerization
processes;
(xvi) specify the process involved in vulcanization;
(xvii) specify chemical test for terminal alkynes
(xviii) distinguish between aliphatic and aromatic
hydrocarbons;
(xix) relate the properties of benzene to its structure
(xx) compare the various classes of alkanols;
(xxi) determine the processes involved in ethanol
production;
(xxii) examine the importance of ethanol as an
alternative energy provider;
(xxiii) distinguish the various classes of alkanols;
(xxiv) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;
(xxv) compare the various types of alkanoic acids;
(xxvi) identify natural sources of alkanoates;
(xxvii) specify the methods for the production of
soap, detergent and margarine.
(xxviii) distinguish between detergent and soap;
(xxix) compare the various classes of alkanamine;
(xxx) identify the natural sources of
carbohydrates;
(xxxi) compare the various classes of
carbohydrates;
(xxxii) infer the products of hydrolysis and
dehydration of carbohydrates;
(xxxiii) determine the uses of carbohydrates;
(xxxiv) specify the tests for simple sugars;
(xxxv) identify the basic structure of proteins;
(xxxvi) specify the methods and products of
hydrolysis;
(xxxvii) specify the various tests for proteins;
(xxxviii) distinguish between natural and synthetic
polymers;
(xxxix) differentiate between addition and
condensation polymerization processes;
(xl) classify natural and commercial polymers
and their uses;
(xli) distinguish between thermoplastics and
thermosetting plastics.
18. Chemistry and Industry
Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and
relevancies; Biotechnology.
Candidates should be able to :
(i) classify chemical industries interms of products;
(ii) identify raw materials for each industry;
(iii) distinguish between fine and heavy
chemicals;
(iv) enumerate the relevance of each of these
industries;
(v) relate industrial processes to biotechnology.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS
1. New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ababio, O. Y. (2009), (Fourth edition), Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited.
2. Senior Secondary Chemistry, Bajah, S.T.; Teibo, B. O., Onwu, G.; and Obikwere, A. Book 1 (1999), Books 2 and 3 (2000). Lagos: Longman.
3. Understanding Chemistry for Schools and Colleges, Ojokuku, G. O. (2012, Revised Edition), Zaria: Press-On Chemresources.
4. Essential: Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (2008), 2nd Edition, I. A. Odesina, Lagos: Tonad Publishers Limited.
5. Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry, Uche, I. O.; Adenuga, I. J. and Iwuagwu, S. L. (2003). Ibadan: Evans.

BIOLOGY SYLLABUS
Table of content

 A: VARIETY OF ORGANISMS

1. Living organisms:
2. Evolution among the following:
3.a Structural/functional and behavioural adaptations of organisms.
B: FORM AND FUNCTIONS
1. Internal structure of a flowering plant
2. Nutrition
3. Transport
4. Respiration
7. Reproduction
8. Growth
9. Co-ordination and control
C: ECOLOGY
1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms
2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals
3. Natural Habitats
4. Local (Nigerian Biomes)
5. The Ecology of Populations:
6. SOIL
7. Humans and Environment
D: HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
(I) Variation In Population
2. Heredity
E: EVOLUTION
1. Theories of evolution
2. Evidence of evolution
A: VARIETY OF ORGANISMS
1. Living organisms:
a. Characteristics
b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components
c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between the characteristics of living and non-living things.
ii. identify the structures of plants and animal cells.
iii. analyse the functions of the components of plants and animal cells.
iv. compare and contrast the structure of plant and animal cells.
v. trace the levels of organization among organisms in their logical sequence in relation to the five level of organization of living organisms.

2. Evolution among the following:
a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium
c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
d. Plantae (plants)
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.
Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse external features and characteristics of the listed organisms:
ii. apply the knowledge from (i) above to demonstrate increase in structural complexity .
iii. trace the stages in the life histories of the listed organisms.
iv. apply the knowledge of the life histories to demonstrate gradual transition from life in water to life on land.
v. trace the evolution of the listed plants.Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the advancement of the invertebrate animals.
ii. determine the economic importance of the
insects studied.
iii. asses their values to the environment.
i. trace the advancement of multi-cellular animals.
ii. determine their economic importance.

3.a Structural/functional and behavioural adaptations of organisms.
b. adaptive colouration and its functions
c. Behavioural adaptations in social animals
d. Structural adaptations in organisms.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe how the various structures, functions and behaviour adapt these organisms to their environment, and way of life
Candidates should be able to:
i. Categorize countershading in fish, toads and snakes and warning colouration in mushrooms.
Candidates should be able to:
i. Differentiate various castes in social insects like termites and thei functions in their colony hive.
ii. Account for basking in lizards, territorial behavour of other animals under unfavourable conditions (hibernation and aestivation).
Candidates should be able to account for adaptation in organisms with respect to the following:
i. Obtaining food (beaks and legs of birds, mouthparts of insects especially mosquito, butterfly and moth.)
ii. Protection and defence (stick insects, praying mantis and toad).
iii. Securing mates (redhead male and female Agama lizards, display of fathers by birds).
iv. Regulating body temperature (skin, feathers and hairs)
v. Conserving water (spines in plants and scales in mammals).

B: FORM AND FUNCTIONS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES

1. Internal structure of a flowering plant
i. Root
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. Internal structure of a mammal
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the transverse sections of these
organs.
a. relate the structure of these organs to their
functions.
b. Identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma) sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres)
c. Describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem and leaf
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the arrangement of the mammalian internal organs.
ii. describe the appearance and position of the digestive, reproductive and excretory organs.

2. Nutrition
a. Modes of nutrition
i. Autotrophic
ii. Heterotrophic
b. Types of Nutrition
c. Plant nutrition
i. Photosynthesis
ii. Mineral requirements
(macro and micro-nutrients)
d. Animal nutrition
i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions
iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption,
and assimilation of digested food.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes of nutrition;
ii. provide examples from both flowering and non- flowering plants
iii. compare autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.
Candidates should be able to:
differentiate the following examples:
– holozoic (sheep and man)
– Parasitic (roundworm, tapeworm and Loranthus)
– saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushroom)
– carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort)
– determine their nutritional value.
Candidates should be able to:
i. Differentiate the light and dark reactions, and state conditions necessary for photosynthesis.
ii. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV) oxide and
chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
iii. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as an evidence of photosynthesis.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify macro-and micro-elements required by plants.
ii. recognise the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

3. Transport
a. Need for transportation
b. Materials for transportation.
Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)
c. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries,
veins, and capillaries)
ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)
d. Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.
Candidates should be able to:
i. indicate the sources of the various classes of food;
ii. relate the importance and deficiency e.g. scurvy, rickets, kwashiorkor etc. of each class;
iii. determine the importance of a balanced diet.
Candidates should be able to detect the presence of the listed food items from the result of a given experiment.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth;
ii. differentiate the types of mammalian tooth and relate their structures to their functions.
iii. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep, and dog.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the various components of the alimentary canal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes;
ii. associate enzymes with digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats;
iii. determine the end products of these classes of food.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the relationship between increase in size and complexity and the need for the development of a transport system in plants and animals.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the sources of materials and the forms in which they are transported.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the general circulatory system;
ii. compare specific functions of the hepatic portal vein, the pulmonary vein and artery, aorta, the renal artery and vein
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the organs of the plant vascular system.
ii. understand the specific functions of the phloem and xylem.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify media of transportation (e.g. cytoplasm,
cell sap, body fluid, blood and lymph);
ii. know the composition and functions of blood and lymph;
iii. describe diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis and
turgidity as mechanism of transportation in organisms.
iv. compare the various mechanisms of open
circulatory systems, in animal transpiration pull, root
pressure and active transport as mechanism of transportation in plants.

4. Respiration
a. Respiratory organs and surfaces
b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
i. Plants
ii. Mammals
c. Aerobic respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the significance of respiration;
ii. describe a simplified outline of the chemical process involved in glycolysis and krebs cycle with reference to the role ATP
iii deduce from an experimental set up, gaseous exchange and products, exchange and production of heat energy during respiration.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the following respiratory organs and surfaces with organisms in which they occur; body surface, gill, trachea, lungs, stomata and lenticel.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the mechanism for the opening and closing of the stomata;
ii. determine respiratory movements in these animals.
Candidates should be able to:
iii. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation of
energy for the activities of the living organisms;
iv. deduce the effect of insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles.
Candidates should be able to:
i. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstrate
the process of fermentation.
ii. know the economic importance of yeasts.

5. Excretion

a. Types of excretory structures:
contractile vacuole, flamecell,
nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney,
stoma and lenticel.
b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin
c. Excretory products of plants
Candidates should be able to:
i. define the meaning and state the significance of excretion;
ii. relate the characteristics of each structure with functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretory
and osmo-regulatory functions.
. identify the functions and excretory products of the lungs and the skin.
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the economic importance of the excretory
products of plants, e.g carbon (IV) oxide, oxygen, tannins, resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.

6. Support and movement

a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep
movements in plants
b. supporting tissues in animals
c. Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the need for support and movement in
organisms;
ii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma,
sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres);
iii. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in
roots, stem, and leaf.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light,
water, gravity and touch;
ii. identify the regions of growth in roots and shoots
and the roles of auxins in tropism.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the location of chitin, cartilage and bone to
their supporting function.
ii. relate the structure and the general layout of the
mammalian skeleton to their supportive, locomotive and respiratory function.
iii. differentiate types of joints using appropriate
examples.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the protective, supportive, locomotive and
respiratory functions of the skeleton to the well being of the animal.

7. Reproduction
a. A sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.
b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction
c. Reproduction in mammals
i. structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development.
(Fusion of gamates)
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction
ii. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop production and multiplication.
iii. apply grafting, budding and layering in agricultural practices.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate parts of flower to their functions and reproductive process
ii. deduce the advantages of cross pollination.
iii. deduce the different types of placentation that develop into simple, aggregate, multiple and succulent fruits.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between male and female reproductive organs
ii. relate their structure and function to the production of offspring.
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the fusion of gametes as a process of
fertilization.
ii. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutrition
and indiscriminate use of drugs on the developmental stages of the embryo up to birth.
iv. Modern methods of regulating reproductive on e.g. invitro fertilization and birth control

8. Growth
a. meaning of growth
b. Germination of seeds and condition
necessary for germination of seeds.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary for germination on plants growth.
ii. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.

9. Co-ordination and control
a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions
of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the
peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action
b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)
c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland
– pancreas
– gonads
ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)
d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the central nervous system in the coordination of body functions in organisms.
ii. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerk etc.
iii. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle and swimming.
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate the listed sense organs with their functions.
ii. apply the knowledge of the structure and functions of these sense organs in detecting and correcting their defects.
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals.
ii. relate the hormone produced by each of these glands to their functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g. auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening and leaf abscission.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the function of hormones to regulating the levels of materials inside the body.

ECOLOGY
1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms
i. Abiotic
ii. Biotic
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relative
humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity, turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil) conditions on the distribution of organisms.
ii. use appropriate equipment (e.g. secchi disc,
thermometer, rain gauge etc) to measure abiotic factors.
Candidates should be able to: | awajis.com/waec
i. describe how the activities of plants/animals (particularly human) affect the distribution of organisms.

2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals
(a) Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains, food webs and trophic levels
(b) Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine appropriate examples of symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, commensalism, mutualism, amensalism,
competition, predation and cooperation among organisms.
ii. associate the distribution of organisms with food chains and food webs in particular habitats.
Candidates should be able to:
i. food chains and webs
Candidates should be able to:
i. describe the cycle and its significance including the balance of atmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide and global warming.
Candidates should be able to:
i. assess the effects of water cycle on other nutrient cycles.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the cycling of nitrogen.

3. Natural Habitats
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes
seashores and mangrove swamps)
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate plants and animals with each of these habitats.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which an organisms lives.

4. Local (Nigerian Biomes)
a. Tropical rainforest
b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)
c. Sudan Savanna
d. Desert
e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate biomes in regions
ii. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed local biomes in determining the characteristics of different regions of Nigeria.

5. The Ecology of Populations:
(a) Population density and overcrowding.
(b) Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific competition
iii. Relationship between competition and succession.
(c) Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.
(d) Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine the reasons for rapid changes in human population and the consequences of overcrowding.
ii. compute/calculate density as the number of organisms per unit area.
Candidates should be able to:
i) Relate increase in population, diseases, shortage of food and space with intra- and inter-specific competition.
Candidates should be able to:
i) Determine niche differentiation as a means of reducing intra-specific completion.
Candidates should be able to: | awajis.com/jamb
i) Relate competition to succession.
Candidates should be able to:
i. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of population.
i. determine the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. drought or scarcity of water which leads to food shortage and lack of space which causes increase in disease rates.
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the sequence in succession to the climax stage of stability in plant population.

6. SOIL
a) (i) characteristics of different types
of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus
content
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water
Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify physical properties of different soil types based on simple measurement of particle size, porosity or water retention ability.
ii. determine the amounts of air, water, humus and capillarity in different soil types experimentally.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate soil characteristics, types and components to the healthy growth of plant.
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter, compaction, leaching, erosion of the top soil and repeated cropping with one variety.
Candidates should be able to:
i. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc to enhance soil conservation.

7. Humans and Environment
(a) Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:
– poliomyelitis
– cholera
– tuberculosis
– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.
b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage
(c) Conservation of Natural Resources
(d) Game reserves and National parks
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify ecological conditions that favour the spread of common endemic and potentially epidemic disease e.g. malaria, meningitis, drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, typhoid fever and cholera etc.
ii. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease with its spread and control.
Candidates should be able to:
i. use the knowledge of the causative organisms, mode of transmission and symptoms of the listed diseases to their prevention/treatment/control.
ii. apply the principles of inoculation and vaccination on disease prevention.
Candidates should be able to:
i. categorize pollution into air, water and soil pollution.
ii. relate the effects of common pollutants to human health and environmental degradation.
iii. determine the methods by which each pollutant may be controlled.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the importance of sanitation with emphasis on solid waste sewage disposal, community health and personal hygiene.
ii assess the roles and functions of international and national health agencies (e.g. World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), International Red Cross Society (IRCS), and the ministries of health and environment.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) apply the various methods of conservation of both the renewable and non-renewable natural resources for the protection of our environment for present and future generations.
(ii) outline the benefits of conserving natural resources, prevention of desertification.
(iii) identify the bodies responsible for the conservation of resources at the national and international levels (e.g. Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria National Parks, World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),
United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and their activities.
(iv) asses their activities.
Candidates should be able to:
i. Know the location and importance of game reserves and National parks in Nigeria

D: HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
(I) Variation In Population
a. Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints
b. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups
c. Application of discontinuous
variation in crime detection,
blood transfusion and
determination of paternity.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between continuous and discontinuous variations with examples.
ii. relate the role of environmental conditions, habitat and the genetic constitution to variation.
Candidates should be able to:
i) measure heights and weight of pupils of the same age group;
ii) plot graphs of frequency distribution of the heights and weights.
Candidates should be able to:
i) observe and record various colour patterns in some plants and mammals.
Candidates should be able to:
i) apply classification of fingerprints in identity detection.
Candidates should be able to:
i) identify some specific examples of
physiological variation among human population.
ii) categorize people according to their physiological variation.
Candidates should be able to:
i) apply the knowledge of blood groups in blood transfusion and determination of paternity.
ii) use discontinuous variation in crime detection.

2. Heredity
a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;
i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.
b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.
c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.
a) Application of the principles of heredity in:
i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine
b. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. determine heritable and non-heritable characters with examples.
Candidates should be able to:
i. illustrate simple structure of DNA
Candidates should be able to:
i. illustrate segregation of genes at meiosis and recombination
of genes at fertilization to account for the process of transmission of characters from parents to offsprings.
Candidates should be able to:
i) deduce that segregation of genes occurs during gamete formation and that recombination of genes at fertilization is
random in nature.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyze data on cross-breeding experiments.
ii. apply the principles of heredity in the production of new varieties of crops and livestock through cross-breeding.
iii. deduce advantages and disadvantages
of out-breeding and in-breeding.
iv. analyze elementarily the contentious issues of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and gene therapy and biosafety.
Candidates should be able to:
i) apply the knowledge of heredity in marriage counselling with particular reference to blood grouping, sickle-cell
anaemia and the Rhesus factors.
ii) examine the significance of using recombinant DNA materials in the production of important medical products such as insulin, interferon and enzymes.
Candidates should be able to:
i) identify characters that are sex linked.

E: EVOLUTION
1. Theories of evolution
a) Lamarck’s theory
b) Darwin’s theory
c) organic theory
Candidates should be able to:
i.) relate organic evolution as the sum total of all adaptive changes that have taken place over a long period of time resulting in the diversity of forms, structure and functions among organisms.
ii.) examine the contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the theory of evolution.
iii.) know evidences in support of organic evolution

2. Evidence of evolution
Candidates should be able to:
i.) provide evidences for evolution such as fossil records, comparative anatomy, physiology and embryology.
ii.) trace evolutionary trends in plants and animals.
iii.) provide evidence for modern evolutionary theories such as genetic studies and the role of mutation.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology:
Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman

Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann

Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan

Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP

Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann

Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman

Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited

ECONOMICS SYLLABUS
TABLE OF CONTENT

1. Economics as a science
2. Economic Systems
3. Methods and Tools of Economic Analysis
4. The Theory of Demand
5. The Theory of Consumer Behaviour
6. The Theory of Supply
7. The Theory of Price Determination
8. The Theory of Production
9. Theory of Costs and Revenue
10. Market Structures
11. National Income
12. Money and Inflation
13. Financial Institutions
14. Public Finance
16. Agriculture in Nigeria
17. Industry and Industrialization
19. Business Organizations
20. Population
21. International Trade
22. International Economic Organizations
23. Factors of Production and their Theories
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES

1. Economics as a science
a. Basic Concepts:
Wants, Scarcity, choice, scale of
preference, opportunity cost, Rationality,
production, distribution, consumption.
bi. Economic problems of:
What, how and for whom to produce and
efficiency of resource use.
bii. Application of PPF to solution of economic
problems.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare various concepts in economics
and their applications;
(ii) interpret graphs/schedules in relation to
the concepts;
(iii) identify economic problems;
(iv) proffer solutions to economic problems

2. Economic Systems
a. Types and characteristics of free
enterprise, centrally planned
and mixed economies
b. Solutions to economic problems under
different systems
c. Contemporary issues in economic systems
(economic reforms e.g deregulation,
banking sector consolidation, cash policy
reform).

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the various economic systems;
(ii) apply the knowledge of economic systems to contemporary issues in Nigeria
(iii) proffer solutions to economic problems in different economic systems.

3. Methods and Tools of Economic Analysis
a. Scientific Approach:
i. inductive and deductive methods
ii. positive and normative reasoning

b. Basic Tools
i. tables, charts and graphs
ii. measures of central tendency: mean,
median and mode, and their
applications.
iii. measures of dispersion; variance,
standard deviation, range and their
applications;
iv. merits and demerits of the tools.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between the various forms of
reasoning;
(ii) apply these forms of reasoning to real life
situations;
(iii) use the tools to interpret economic data;
(iv) analyse economic data using the tools;
(v) assess the merits and demerits of the tools.

4. The Theory of Demand
a. i. meaning and determinants of demand
ii. demand schedules and curves
iii. the distinction between change in
quantity demanded and change in
demand.

b. Types of demand:
Composite, derived, competitive and joint demand:

c. Types, nature and determinants of
elasticity and their measurement –
price, income and cross elasticity of
demand:

d. Importance of elasticity of demand to
consumers, producers and government.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors determining demand;
(ii) interpret demand curves from demand schedules;
(iii) differentiate between change in quantity demanded and change in demand;
(iv) compare the various types of demand and their interrelationships;
(v) relate the determinants to the nature of elasticity;
(vi) compute elasticities;
(vii) interpret elasticity coefficients in relation to real life situations.

5. The Theory of Consumer Behaviour
a. Basic Concepts:
i. utility (cardinal, ordinal, total average and marginal utilities)
ii. indifference curve and budget line.
b. Diminishing marginal utility and the law of demand.
c. Consumer equilibrium using the indifference curve and marginal analyses.
d. Effects of shift in the budget line and the indifference curve.
e. Consumer surplus and its applications.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) explain the various utility concepts;
(ii) apply the law of demand using the marginal utility analysis;
(iii) use indifference curve and marginal
analyses to determine consumer equilibrium;
(iv) relate the income and substitution effects;
(v) apply consumer surplus to real life
situations.

6. The Theory of Supply
a. i. Meaning and determinants of
supply
ii. Supply schedules and supply curves
iii. the distinction between change in
quantity supplied and change in
supply

b. Types of Supply:
Joint/complementary, competitive and
composite

c. Elasticity of Supply:
determinants, measurements, nature and
applications

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors determining
supply;
(ii) interpret supply curves from supply schedules;
(iii) differentiate between change in quantity supplied and change in supply;
(iv) compare the various types of supply and their interrelationships;
(v) relate the determinants to the nature of elasticity;
(vi) compute elasticity coefficients;
(vii) interpret the coefficients in relation to real live situations.

7. The Theory of Price Determination
a. The concepts of market and price
b. Functions of the price system
c. i. Equilibrium price and quantity in
product and factor markets
ii. Price legislation and its effects
d. The effects of changes in supply and
demand on equilibrium price and
quantity.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) explain the concepts of market and price;
(ii) examine the functions of the price system;
(iii) evaluate the effects of government interference with the price system;
(iv) differentiate between minimum and maximum price legislation;
(v) interpret the effects of changes in supply and demand on equilibrium price and quantity.

8. The Theory of Production
a. Meaning and types of production
b. Concepts of production and their interrelationships (TP, AP, MP and the law of variable proportion).
c. Division of labour and specialization
d. Scale of Production:
Internal and external economies of scale and their implications.
e. Production functions and returns to scale
f. Producers’ equilibrium isoquant-isocost and marginal analyses.
g. Factors affecting productivity.
Candidates should be able to:
(i) relate TP, AP and MP with the law of variable proportion;
(ii) compare internal and external economies of scale in production and their effects;
(iii) identify the types of production functions
(iv) compare the different types of returns to the scale and their implications;
(v) determine the firm’s equilibrium position using the isoquant-isocost and marginal analyses.
(vi) identify the factors affecting productivity.

9. Theory of Costs and Revenue
a. The concepts of cost:
Fixed, Variable, Total Average and
Marginal
b. The concepts of revenue: Total, average and marginal revenue;
c. Accountants’ and Economists’ notions of cost
d. Short-run and long-run costs
e. The marginal cost and the supply curve of firm.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) explain the various cost concepts
(ii) differentiate between accountants’ and economists’ notions of costs
(iii) interpret the short-run and long-run costs curves
(iv) establish the relationship between marginal cost and supply curve.
(v) explain the various revenue concepts.

10. Market Structures
a. Perfectly competitive market:
i. Assumptions and characteristics;
ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium
of a perfect competitor;
b. Imperfect Market:
i. Pure monopoly, discriminatory
monopoly and monopolistic
competition.
ii. Short-run and long-run equilibrium
positions.
c. Break-even/shut-down analysis in the
various markets.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse the assumptions and characteristics of a perfectly competitive
market;
(ii) differentiate between short-run and long-run equilibrium of a perfectly competitive firm;
(iii) analyse the assumptions and characteristics of imperfect markets;
(iv) differentiate between the short-run and long-run equilibria of imperfectly competitive firms;
(v) establish the conditions for the break- even/shut down of firms.

11. National Income
a. The Concepts of GNP, GDP, NI, NNP
b. National Income measurements and their problems
c. Uses and limitations of national income estimates
d. The circular flow of income (two and three-sector models)
e. The concepts of consumption, investment and savings
f. The multiplier and it effects
g. Elementary theory of income determination and equilibrium national
income.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the major concepts in national income;
(ii) compare the different ways of measuring national income;
(iii) examine their problems;
(iv) assess the uses and limitations of national income estimates;
(v) interpret the circular flow of income using the two and three-sector models;
(vi) calculate the various multipliers;
(vii) evaluate their effects on equilibrium national income;
(viii) explain the concepts of consumption, investment and savings.

12. Money and Inflation
a. Types, characteristics and functions of money
b. Demand for money and the supply of money
c. Quantity Theory of money (Fisher equation)
d. The value of money and the price level
e. Inflation: Types, measurements, effects and control
f. Deflation: Measurements, effects and control.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) explain between the types, characteristics and functions of money;
(ii) identify the factors affecting the demand for and the supply of money;
(iii) examine the relationship between the value of money and the price level;
(iv) identify the components in the quantity theory of money;
(v) examine the causes and effects of inflation;
(vi) calculate the consumer price index;
(vii) interpret the consumer price index;
(viii) examine ways of controlling inflation.
(ix) Examine the causes, measurement, effects and control of deflation.

13. Financial Institutions
a. Types and functions of financial institutions (traditional, central bank, mortgage banks, merchant banks, insurance companies, building societies);
b. The role of financial institutions in economic development;
c. Money and capital markets
d. Financial sector regulations
e. Deposit money banks and the creation of money
f. Monetary policy and its instruments
g. Challenges facing financial institutions in Nigeria.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) Identify the types and functions of financial institutions;
(ii) Explain the roles of financial institutions in economic development;
(iii) Distinguish between the money and capital markets;
(iv) Identify the various financial sector regulators and their functions;
(v) Explain the money creation process and its challenges;
(vi) Examine the various monetary policy instruments and their effects;
(vii) Appraise the challenges facing the financial institutions in Nigeria.

14. Public Finance
a. Meaning and objectives
b. Fiscal policy and its instruments
c. Sources of government revenue (taxes royalties, rents, grants and aids)
d. Principles of taxation
e. Tax incidence and its effects | awajis.com/jamb
f. The effects of public expenditure
g. Government budget and public debts
h. Revenue allocation and resource control in Nigeria.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the objectives of public finance;
(ii) explain fiscal policy and its instruments;
(iii) compare the various sources of government revenue
(iv) analyse the principles of taxation;
(v) analyse the incidence of taxation and its effects;
(vi) examine the effects of public expenditure on the economy;
(vii) examine the types and effects of budgets;
(viii) highlight the criteria for revenue allocation in Nigeria and their impact.

15. Economic Growth and Development

a. Meaning and scope
b. Indicators of growth and development
c. Factors affecting growth and development
d. Problems of development in Nigeria
e. Development planning in Nigeria.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between economic growth and development;
(ii) highlight the indicators of growth and development;
(iii) identify the factors affecting growth and development;
(iv) examine the problems of development in Nigeria;
(v) examine the role of planning in development;

16. Agriculture in Nigeria
a. Types and features;
b. The role of agriculture in economic development;
c. Problems of agriculture;
d. Effects of agricultural policies and their effects;
e. Instability in agricultural incomes (causes, effects and solutions).

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the types and features of agriculture;
(ii) examine the characteristics and problems of agriculture;
(iii) assess the role of agriculture in economic development;
(iv) appraise agricultural policies in Nigeria;
(v) evaluate the causes and effects of instability in agricultural incomes.

17. Industry and Industrialization
a. Concepts and effects of location and localization of industry in Nigeria;
b. Strategies and Industrialization in Nigeria;
c. Industrialization and economic development in Nigeria;
d. Funding and management of business organization;
e. Factors determining the size of firms.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between location and localization of industry;
(ii) identify the factors influencing the location and localization of industry;
(iii) examine the problems of industrialization;
(iv) appraise some industrialization strategies;
(v) examine the role of industry in economic development.

18. Natural Resources and the Nigerian Economy

a. Development of major natural resources (petroleum, gold, diamond, timber etc);
b. Contributions of the oil and the non-oil sectors to the Nigerian economy;
c. Linkage effects;
d. Upstream/downstream of the oil sector;
e. The role of NNPC and OPEC in the oil sector;
f. Challenges facing natural resources exploitation.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) trace the development of the major natural resources in Nigeria;
(ii) assess the contribution of the oil and the non-oil sectors to the Nigerian economy;
(iii) establish the linkages between the natural resources and other sectors;
(iv) analyse the environmental effects of exploitation activities in Nigeria;
(v) distinguish between the upstream and downstream activities in the oil sector ;
(vi) examine the roles of NNPC and OPEC in the oil sector;
(vii) suggest ways of controlling the effects of natural resources exploitation.

19. Business Organizations
a. Private enterprises (e.g. sole-proprietorship,
partnership, limited liability companies and cooperative societies)
b. Problems of private enterprises;
c. Public enterprises and their problems;
d. Funding and management of business organizations;
e. Factors determining the size of firms;
f. Privatization and Commercialization as solutions to the problems of public enterprises.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the types and basic features of private business organization;
(ii) assess the financing and management problems of business organizations;
(iii) identify the features of public enterprises;
(iv) identify the factors determining the size of firms;
(v) differentiate between privatization and commercialization;
(vi) compare the advantages and disadvantages of privatization and commercialization;

20. Population
a. Meaning and theories;
b. Census: importance and problems.
c. Size and growth: over-population, under- population and optimum population.
d. Structure and distribution;
e. Population policy and economic development.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse some population theories:
(ii) examine the relevance of the theories to Nigeria;
(iii) examine the uses and limitations of census data;
(iv) identify determinants of the size, composition and growth of population;
(v) analyse the structure and distribution of population;
(vi) appraise government population policy in Nigeria.

21. International Trade
a. Meaning and basis for international trade (absolute and comparative costs etc)
b. Balance of trade and balance of payments: problems and corrective measures;
c. Composition and direction of Nigeria’s foreign trade;
d. Exchange rate: meaning, types and determination.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) examine the basis for international trade.
(ii) differentiate between absolute and comparative advantages;
(iii) distinguish between balance of trade and balance of payments and their corrective measures;
(iv) highlight the problems of balance of payments and their corrective measures;
(v) examine the composition and direction of Nigeria’s foreign trade;
(vi) identify the types of exchange rates;
(vii) examine how exchange rates are determined.

22. International Economic Organizations
Roles and relevance of international
organization e.g. ECOWAS, AU, EU, ECA, IMF, EEC, OECD, World Bank, IBRD,
WTO, ADB and UNCTAD etc to Nigeria.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various economic organizations and their functions;
(vii) evaluate their relevance to the Nigerian economy

23. Factors of Production and their Theories
a. Types, features and rewards;
b. Determination of wages, interest and profits;
c. Theories: marginal productivity theory of wages and liquidity preference theory;
d. Factor mobility and efficiency;
e. Unemployment and its solutions

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the types; features and rewards of factors;
(ii) analyse the determination of wages, interest and profits;
(iii) interpret the marginal productivity of liquidity preference theories
(iv) examine factors mobility and efficiency;
(v) examine the types and causes of unemployment in Nigeria;
(vi) suggest solutions to unemployment in Nigeria.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Aderinto, A.A et al (1996) Economics: Exam Focus, Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Black, J. (1997) Oxford Dictionary of Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Eyiyere, D.O. (1980) Economics Made Easy, Benin City, Quality Publishers Ltd.

Fajana, F et al (1999) Countdown to SSCE/JME Economics Ibadan: Evans

Falodun, A.B. et al (1997) Round-up Economics, Lagos: Longman

Kountsoyiannis, A. (1979) Modern Microeconomics, London: Macmillan

Lipsey, R.G. (1997) An Introduction to Positive Economics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Samuelson, P and Nordhaus, W. (1989) Economics, Singapore: McGraw-Hill

Udu E and Agu G.A. (2005) New System Economics: a Senior Secondary Course, Ibadan: Africana FIRST Publishers Ltd.

Wannacott and Wannacott (1979) Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Brownson-oton Richard (2010) What is Micro-Economics? Niky Printing and Publishing coy.

Brownson-oton Richard (2010) What is Macro-Economics? Niky Printing and Publishing coy.

GOVERNMENT SYLLABUS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART 1: ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT
1. Basic Concepts in Government
2. Forms of Government:
3. Arms of Government:
4. Structures of Governance:
5. Systems of Governance:
6. Political Ideologies:
7. Constitution:
8. Principles of Democratic Government:
9. Processes of Legislation:
10. Citizenship:
11. The Electoral Process:
12. Political Parties and Party Systems:
13. Pressure Groups:
14. Public Opinion:
15. The Civil Service:
PART II POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1. Pre – colonial Polities:
2. Imperialist Penetration:
3. Process of Decolonization:
4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria:
5. Post – Independence Constitutions:
6. Institutions of Government in the Post – Independence Nigeria:
7. Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
8. Political Parties and Party Politics in Post-Independence Nigeria:
9. The Structure and Workings of Nigerian Federalism:
10. Public Corporations and Parastatals:
11. Local Government:
12. The Military in Nigerian Politics:
PART III: FOREIGN POLICY AND NIGERIA’S RELATIONS WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
1. Foreign Policy:
2. Nigeria’s Foreign Policy:
3. Relations with African Countries:
4. Nigeria in International Organizations
PART IV: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
1. International Organizations:
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
PART 1: ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES     OBJECTIVES
1. Basic Concepts in Government
a. Power, Authority, Legitimacy,
Sovereignty;
b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;
c. Political Processes;
Political Socialization, Political
Participation, Political Culture.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the fundamental concepts in governance;
ii. analyse various political processes;
2. Forms of Government:
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy,
Autocracy, Republicanism, Democracydefinitions,
features, merits and
demerits.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between different forms of
government.
3. Arms of Government:
a. The Legislature – types, structure, functions, powers;
b. The Executive – types, functions, powers;
c. The Judiciary – functions, powers, components.
d. Their relationships
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the duties and obligations of the various arms of government and their agencies;
ii. relate each arm to its functions;
iii. appreciate how these arms interrelates.
4. Structures of Governance:
a. Unitary – features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits
b. Federal – features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits
c. Confederal – features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the various political structures of governance.
5. Systems of Governance:
Presidential, Parliamentary and Monarchical.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish between the different systems of governance.
6. Political Ideologies:
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism, Socialism, Communism, Totalitarianism, Fascism, Nazism.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between the major political ideologies;
ii. contrast modes of production,
7. Constitution:
Meaning, Sources, Functions, Types – Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.
Candidates should be able to:
i. Define and identify sources and functions of constitutions;
ii. compare the nature of constitutions.
8. Principles of Democratic Government:
Ethics and Accountability in Public Office, Separation of Power, Checks and Balances, Individual and Collective Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of Law, Representative Government.
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the principles of democratic government;
ii. determine the application of these principles;
9. Processes of Legislation:
Legislative Enactments – acts, edicts, bye-laws, delegated legislation, decrees.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse the processes involved in the making of laws.
10. Citizenship:
a. Meaning, types;
b. Citizenship rights;
c. Dual citizenship, renunciation, deprivation;
d. Duties and obligations of citizens;
e. Duties and obligations of the state.
Candidates should be able to:
i. differentiate between the various methods of acquiring citizenship;
ii. specify the rights and responsibilities of a citizen;
iii. assess the obligations of the state.
11. The Electoral Process:
a. Suffrage – evolution, types;
b. Election – types, ingredients of free and fair election;
c. Electoral System – types, advantages and disadvantages of each;
d. Electoral Commission – functions, problems.
Candidates should be able to:
i. distinguish the different types of franchise
ii. identify and explain the types of electoral systems
iii. analyse the various electoral processes.
12. Political Parties and Party Systems:
a. Political parties – Definition, Organization, functions.
b. Party Systems – Definition, organization, functions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. assess the role of political parties;
ii. distinguish between types of party systems.
13. Pressure Groups:
a. Definition, types, functions and modes of operation.
b. Differences between Pressure Groups and Political Parties.
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the functions and the modus operandi of pressure groups;
ii. distinguish between pressure groups and political parties.
14. Public Opinion:
a. Meaning, formation and measurement.
b. Functions and limitations.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare methods of assessing public opinion;
ii. assess the functions of public opinion;
iii. analyse the limitations of public opinion.
15. The Civil Service:
Definition, characteristics, functions, structure, control and problems.
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse the significance of civil service in governance.
PART II POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1. Pre – colonial Polities:
Pre-jihad Hausa, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo, Yoruba
a. Their structural organization;
b. The functions of their various political institutions.
Candidates should be able to:
i. appreciate the effectiveness of the pre-colonial political systems;
ii. compare pre-colonial systems of governance.
2. Imperialist Penetration:
a. The British process of acquisition – trade, missionary activities, company rule, crown colony, protectorate;
b. The British colonial administrative policy – direct and indirect rule;
c. The French colonial administrative policy – assimilation and association;
d. Impact of British colonial rule- economic, political, socio-cultural;
e. Comparison of British and French colonial administration.
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the processes of imperialist penetration;
ii. assess the impact of British and French policies;
iii. distinguish between British and French colonial practices.
3. Process of Decolonization:
a. Nationalism – Meaning, Types;
b. Nationalist Movements – emergence, goals, strategies;
c. Nationalist Leaders – Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello, Ladipo Solanke, Aminu Kano, J. S. Tarka, Tafawa Balewa and others;
d. Emergence of nationalist parties;
e. Influence of external factors.
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the process of decolonization;
ii. assess the roles of nationalist leaders and parties;
iii. assess the impact of external forces and ideas (Pan-Africanism, Back-to-Africa Movements, Second World War etc).
4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria:
a. Hugh Clifford Constitution (1922)
b. Arthur Richards Constitution (1946)
c. John Macpherson Constitution (1951)
d. Oliver Lyttleton Constitution (1954)
e. Independence Constitution (1960)
Their features, merits and demerits.
Candidates should be able to:
i. compare the various constitutional developments.
5. Post – Independence Constitutions:
1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999- characteristics and shortcomings.
Candidates should be able to:
i. assess the workings of the various constitutions.
6. Institutions of Government in the Post – Independence Nigeria:
a. The Legislative – structure, functions and working.
b. The Executive – structure, functions and workings.
c. The Judiciary – structure, functions and workings.
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the operations of the arms of government and their agencies, e.g the civil service, armed forces, police, courts and others.
7. Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
The Civil Service Commission, the Public Complaints Commission, Electoral Commissions, National Boundary Commission and others – objectives functions and problems .
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the operations of public commissions;
ii. assess the problems of the Public Commissions and their constraints.
8. Political Parties and Party Politics in Post-Independence Nigeria:
a. First Republic
b. Second Republic
c. Third Republic
d. Fourth Republic
– Evolution, membership spread, structure etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. contrast political processes in the republics;
ii. evaluate the ideologies, structure and composition of the political parties.
9. The Structure and Workings of Nigerian Federalism:
a. Rationale for a Federal System;
b. Tiers of government and their relationship;
c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967, 1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism – census, revenue allocation, conflicts etc. solutions e.g. Federal character, etc.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the workings of Nigerian federalism;
ii. identify its problems;
iii. evaluate the corrective measure adopted.
10. Public Corporations and Parastatals:
a. Definition, types, purpose and functions;
b. Finance, control and problems;
c. Deregulation, privatization, commercialization – objectives, features, merits and demerits;
d. Comparison between public corporations and parastatals.
Candidates should be able to:
i. examine the operations of public corporations and parastatals;
ii. identify the processes involved in privatization and commercialization;
iii. assess the economic importance of privatization and commercialization.
11. Local Government:
a. Local government administration prior to 1976;
b. Features of local government reforms (1976, 1989) – structure, functions, finance and inter-governmental relations;
c. Traditional rulers and local governments;
d. Problems of local government administration in Nigeria.
Candidates should be able to:
i. trace the evolution and structure of local government;
ii. identify the major problems faced by local governments.
12. The Military in Nigerian Politics:
a. Factors that led to military intervention;
b. Structure of military regimes;
c. Impact of military rule – political, e.g creation of states, introduction of unitary system (Unification Decree NO. 34) etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.
d. Processes of military disengagement.
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the reasons given for military intervention;
ii. assess the achievements of military rule;
iii. determine the conditions that necessitated withdrawal from governance.
PART III: FOREIGN POLICY AND NIGERIA’S RELATIONS WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
1. Foreign Policy:
– Definition, purpose, determining factors; formulation and implementation.
Candidates should be able to:
i. Define foreign policy, identify and explain its determinants
2. Nigeria’s Foreign Policy:
a. Relations with major powers;
b. Relations with developing countries, e.g the Technical Aid Corps (TAC), etc.
c. Nigeria’s Non-Alignment Policy. | awajis.com/jamb
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify the major objectives of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
ii. analyse Nigeria’s non-aligned posture.
3. Relations with African Countries:
a. Africa as the “centre piece” of Nigeria’s forieign policy – guiding principles, implementation and implications;
b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and implications.
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the role of Nigeria in continental affairs;
ii. assess the role of NEPAD in developing Africa.
4. Nigeria in International Organizations
a. The United Nations;
b. The Commonwealth;
c. The Organization of African Unity;
d. The African Union;
e. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
f. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
Candidates should be able to:
i. analyse the dynamics of Nigeria’s involvement in international organizations;
ii. assess their contribution to the development of Nigeria.
PART IV: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
1. International Organizations:
a. ECOWAS;
b. OAU, AU;
c. Commonwealth;
d. OPEC;
e. UNO;
f. African Petroleum Producers Association;
– Origin, objectives, structure, functions, achievements, problems and prospects of these organizations.
Candidates should be able to:
i. evaluate the operations of these international organizations;
ii. assess the role of these organizations in world affairs;
iii. appreciate the challenges of these organizations and how they can be overcome.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adigwe, F (1985) Essentials of Government for West Africa, Ibadan: University Press Plc.
Anifowose, R and Enemuo, F. C (eds)(1999) Elements of Politics, Lagos; Malthouse Press Limited.
Appadorai, A. (1978) The Substance of Politics, London: Oxford University Press.
Ball, A. R. (1983) Modern Politics and Government, London: Macmillan.
Ofoegbu, R. (1977) Government for the Certificate Year, London: George Allen and Unwin.
Olawale, J. B (1987) New Topics on Ordinary Level Government, Ilesha: Jola Publishing.
Oyediran, O. Nwosu, H., Takaya, B., Anifowoshe, R., Femi, B., Godwill, O. and Adigun, A. (1990) Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: Longman.
Oyeneye, I., Onyenwenu, M. and Olusunde, B. E. (2000) Round-Up Government for Senior Secondary School Certifcate Examination: A Complete Guide, Ibadan: Longman.
Oyovbaire, S., Ogunna, A. E. C., Amucheazi, E. C., Coker, H. O. and Oshuntuyi, O. (2001) Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination: Government, Ibadan: Evans.
CRS SYLLABUS
1. CREATION TO THE DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM
This is the first topic and it has 8 subtopics. They include;
A MAN AFTER GOD’S HEART
DECISION MAKING
DIVINE PROVIDENCE, GUIDANCE AND PROTECTION
LEADERSHIP QUALITIES
OBEDIENCE AND DISOBEDIENCE
PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITY
THE COVENANT
THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD
2. DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM TO THE RETURN FROM EXILE AND THE PROPHETS
This is the second topic in the UTME syllabus for CRS and it has 9 subtopics. They include;
CONCERN FOR JUDAH
FAITH, COURAGE AND PROTECTION
GOD’S MESSAGE TO NINEVEH
GREED AND ITS EFFECTS
HOLINESS AND DIVINE CALL
PUNISHMENT AND HOPE
RELIGIOUS REFORMS IN JUDAH
SOCIAL JUSTICE, TRUE RELIGION AND DIVINE LOVE
THE SUPREMACY OF GOD
3. SELECTED EPISTLES
This is the third topic in the JAMB syllabus for CRS and it has 16 subtopics. They include;
CHRISTIAN GIVING
CHRISTIAN LIVING IN THE COMMUNITY
CHRISTIANS AS JOINT HEIRS WITH CHRIST
CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY
CORRUPTION
DIGNITY OF LABOUR
EFFECTIVE PRAYER
FORGIVENESS
HUMILITY
IMPARTIALITY
JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH
NEW LIFE IN CHRIST
SEXUAL IMMORALITY
SPIRITUAL GIFTS
THE LAW AND GRACE
THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST
4. THE FOUR GOSPELS AND THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
This is the second topic in the CRS Jamb syllabus it has nineteen (19) subtopics. They include;
DISCIPLESHIP
FELLOWSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH
JESUS’ TEACHINGS ABOUT HIMSELF
LOVE
MIRACLES
MISSION OF THE DISCIPLES
MISSION TO THE GENTILES
OPPOSITION TO THE GOSPEL MESSAGE
RESURRECTION, APPEARANCES AND ASCENSION OF JESUS
SERMON ON THE MOUNT
THE BAPTISM AND TEMPTATION OF JESUS CHRIST
THE BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE OF JESUS
THE GREAT CONFESSION
THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH
THE LAST SUPPER
THE PARABLES
THE TRANSFIGURATION
THE TRIALS AND THE DEATH OF JESUS
THE TRIUMPHANT ENTRY AND THE CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLEJAMB Approved Text Books for CRS
ExamFocus Christian Religious Knowledge by Adetunji, P.G
Christian Religious Knowledge for Secondary Schools Books 1 ? 3 by Adeyemo, I. O. et al
Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools, Book 1 ? 3, by Adeyinka, A. A. et al
Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools. by Adigwe, H.A et?al.
Senior Secondary School Christian Religious Knowledge: Themes from Selected Epistles, by Aghaeghuna, E. O. N
Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools Books 1 ? 3, by Dopamu A. Et al
Christian Religious Knowledge for Senior Secondary Schools Books 1 ? 3,by Ilori J. A. et al.
Round-Up for Senior Secondary Certificate Examination Christian Religious Knowledge: A Complete Guide. by Izuchukwu, A.E. et?al.
Gospel Parallels: A Synopsis of the First Three Gospels. by Throckmorton, B.H, Jr. (ed).
THE BIBLE: Revised Standard Version.

GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES OBJECTIVES
I. PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY
A. Maps
Candidates should be able to:
Ai define and identify different types and uses
of maps
B. Scale and measurement
distances, areas reduction and enlargement, directions, bearings and gradients with reference to topographical maps.
Candidates should be able to:
Bi apply the different types of scale to distances and area measurement;
ii apply the knowledge of scale to gradients,
map reduction and enlargement;
C. Map reading and interpretation;
drawing of cross profiles, recognition of intervisibility, recognition and description of physical and human features and relationship as depicted on topographical maps.
Candidates should be able to:
Ci illustrate the relief of an area through profile
drawing;
ii interpret physical and human features from
topographical maps.
D. Interpretation of statistical data;
maps and diagrams
Candidates should be able to:
Di Compute quantitative information from statistical data, diagrams and maps,
ii. interpret statistical data, diagrams and maps.
E. Elementary Surveying;
chain and prismatic, open and close traverse, procedure, problems, advantages and disadvantages.
Candidates should be able to:
Ei. analyse the principle and procedure of each
technique;
ii. compare the advantages of the two
techniques.
F. Geographic Information System (GIS):
components, techniques, data sources, applications
Candidates should be able to:
Fi. Understand GIS and its uses.
ii. Understand the computer system of data
capturing and analysis
iii. Express locations through the use of latitudes,
longitudes, zipcodes etc.
iv. Understand land surveying, remote sensing,
map digitizing, map scanning as sources of data.
v. Explain areas of use: Defense, Agriculture,
Rural Development etc.
vi. Identify problems with GIS in Nigeria.
II. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
A. The earth as a planet
i. The earth in the solar system, rotation and revolution;
ii. The shape and size of the earth
iii. Latitudes and distances, longitudes
and time;
Candidates should be able to:
Ai identify the relative positions of the planets
in the solar system;
ii relate the effects of the rotation to the revolution of the earth;
iii provide proof for the shape and size of the
earth;
iv differentiate between latitudes and
longitudes;
v relate lines of latitude to calculation of
distance;
vi relate lines of longitude to calculation of time;
B. The Earth Crust
i. The structure of the earth (internal
and external) Relationships among the four spheres.
ii. Rocks: Types, characteristics, modes of formation and uses
iii. Earth’s movement: Tectonic forces
iv. Major Landforms: Mountains, Plateaux,
Plains, Coastal landforms, karst
topography and desert landforms
Candidates should be able to:
Bi compare the internal and external
components of the earth.
ii. understand the existing relationship among
atmosphere, biosphere in terms of energy
balance and water cycle.
iii. differentiate between major types of rocks and their characteristics;
iv. analyse the processes of formation and the
resultant features;
v. indicate the uses of rocks.
vi. differentiate between tensional and
compressional forces and the resultant
landforms.
vii. identify and describe the major landforms
C. Volcanism and Earthquakes
i. landforms associated with volcanic activities
ii. landforms of Igneous Rocks
iii. origin and types of Volcanoes
iv. some volcanic eruptions and earthquakes
Candidates should be able to:
Ci. explain the processes of volcanic eruptions and
earthquakes
ii. describe the different landforms associated with
both volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
iii. give examples of major volcanic eruptions and
earthquakes in the world.
D. Denudation processes in the tropics
i. weathering
ii. erosion
iii. mass movement
iv. deposition
Candidates should be able to:
Di. identify the agents of denudation
ii. associate landforms with each process and
agent.
E. Water Bodies
i. Oceans and seas (world distribution, salinity and uses)
ii Ocean currents – types, distribution, causes and effects;
iii Lakes – types, distribution and uses.
iv. Rivers: Action of running water.
Candidates should be able to:
Ei locate oceans and seas on the globe;
ii. examine the characteristics and uses of
oceans and seas;
iii. classify the types of ocean currents;
iv. account for the distribution of ocean
currents;
v. evaluate the causes and effects of ocean
currents;
vi. identify the types and location of lakes;
vii. indicate the characteristics and uses of lakes
viii. identify the landforms of the different stages
of a river course.
F. Weather and Climate
i Concept of weather and climate
ii Elements of weather and climate
iii Factors controlling weather and climate
(pressure, air mass, altitude, continentality and winds)
iv Classification of climate (Greek and Koppen).
v Major climate types (Koppen), their characteristics and distribution.
vi Measuring and recording weather parameters and instruments used.
vii The basic science of climate change.
Candidates should be able to:
Fi. differentiate between weather and climate;
ii differentiate between the elements of
weather and climate;
iii isolate the factors controlling weather and
climate;
iv compare Koppen’s and Greek’s classifications
v identify the major types of climate
according to Koppen;
vii relate the weather instruments to their
uses.
viii define climate change
ix understand the causes of climate change
x understand the effects and remedies of
climate change.
G. Vegetation
i Factors controlling growth of plants
ii The concept of vegetation e.g. plant communities and succession
iii Major types of vegetation, their
characteristics and distribution,
iv Impact of human activities on vegetation.
Candidates should be able to:
Gi trace the factors controlling the growth
of plants;
ii analyse the process of vegetation
development;
iii identify the types, their characteristics
and distribution;
iv assess the impact of human activities
on vegetation;
H. Soils
i. Definition and properties
ii. Factors and processes of formation
iii. Soil profiles
iv. Major tropical types, their characteristics, distribution and uses;
v. Impact of human activities on soils.
Candidates should be able to:
Hi classify soils and their properties;
ii. isolate the factors of formation;
iii. differentiate between the different types
of soil horizons and their characteristics;
iv. compare the major tropical soil types and
uses of soils;
v. account for the distribution and uses of
soils;
vi. assess the impact of human activities
on soils.
I. Environmental Resources;
i Types of resources (atmospheric, land, soil, Vegetation and minerals)
ii The concept of renewable and non-
renewable resources;
Candidates should be able to:
Ii. interpret the concept of environmental
resources;
ii. relate environmental resources to their
uses;
iii. differentiate between the concepts of
renewable and non-renewable resources.
J. Environmental interaction:
i Land ecosystem
ii Environmental balance and human
interaction
Candidates should be able to:
Ji. identify the components of land
ecosystem;
ii. establish the interrelationship within the
ecosystem;
iii. interpret the concept of environmental
balance;
iv. analyse the effects of human activities on
land ecosystem.
K. Environmental hazards:
i. Natural hazards (droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding)
ii. Man-induced (soil erosion, deforestation, pollution, flooding and desertification)
iii. Effects, prevention and control of hazards.
Candidates should be able to:
Ki identify the natural hazards and their causes;
ii. relate the human-induced hazards to their causes;
iii. locate the major areas where they are
common and their effects;
iv. recommend possible methods of
prevention and control.
L. Environmental Conservation
Candidates should be able to:
Li. Explain with examples environmental
conservation
ii discuss the different methods of
environmental conservation.
iii Explain the need/importance of
environmental conservation
III. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
A. Population
i. World population with particular reference to the Amazon Basin, N.E. U.S.A., India, Japan and the West Coast of Southern Africa.
ii. Characteristics – birth and death rates, ages/sex structure.
iii. Factors and patterns of population distribution;
iv . Factors and problems of population growth.
Candidates should be able to:
Ai. Define different concepts of population;
ii. identify the characteristics of
population (growth rates and structure);
iii. determine the factors and the patterns of
population distribution;
iv. identify the factors and problems of population growth;
v. relate the types of migration to their causes and effects;
vi. account for the ways population constitute
a resource.
B. Settlement with particular reference to Western Europe, the USA, Middle East and West Africa:
i. Types and patterns: rural and urban, dispersed, nucleated and linear;
ii. Rural settlement: classification, factors of growth and functions;
iii. Urban settlement – classification, factors of growth and functions.
iv. Problems of urban centres
v. Interrelationship between rural and urban
settlements.
Candidates should be able to:
Bi differentiate between types of
settlements; (rural and urban)
ii. classify the patterns and functions of rural settlements;
iii. classify the patterns and functions of urban settlements;
iv identify the problems of urban centres;
v. establish the interrelationship between rural
and urban settlements;
C. Selected economic activities
i. Types of economic activities: primary, secondary, tertiary and quartnary;
ii. Agriculture: types, system, factors and problems
iii. Manufacturing industries, types, locational factors, distribution and socio- economic importance and problems of industrialization in tropical Africa.
iv. Transportation and Communication types,
roles in economic development and communication in tropical Africa.
v. World trade-factors and pattern of
world trade, major commodities (origin, routes and destinations).
vi. Tourism: definition, importance, location, problems and solutions.
Candidates should be able to:
Ci. identify the types of economic activities;
ii. differentiate between the types of
economic activities;
iii. assess Agriculture as an economic activity;
iv. compare the types of manufacturing industries;
v. identify the factors of industrial location;
vi. examine the socio-economic importance
of manufacturing industries;
vii. give reasons for the problems of industrialization in tropical Africa;
viii. differentiate between the types and means of transportation and communication;
ix. assess the economic importance of transport;
x. give reasons for the problems of transportation in tropical Africa;
xi. relate the factors to the pattern of world trade.
xii. classify the major commodities of trade
in terms of their origins, routes and destination.
xiii. Analyse tourism as an economic activity.
IV. REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
A. Broad outline of Nigeria
i. Location, position, size, political division
(states) and peoples;
ii Physical settling: geology, relief, landform, climate and drainage, vegetation and soils;
iii Population: size, distribution, migration,
(types, problems and effects);
iv Natural Resources: types (minerals, soils,
Water, vegetation etc) distribution, uses
and conservation.
Candidates should be able to:
Ai describe the location, size and political
divisions of Nigeria;
ii. identify the ethnic groups and their distributions;
iii. relate the components of physical settings to
their effects on human activities;
iv. account for the pattern of population distribution;
v. examine the types of migration, their problems and effects;
vi. identify the types of natural resources and their distribution;
vii. indicate their uses and conservation;
B. Economic and Human Geography:
i. Agricultural Systems: the major crops
produced, problems of agricultural development in Nigeria.
ii. Manufacturing Industries: factors of
location, types of products, marketing and problems associated with manufacturing;
iii. Transportation and Communication:modes of transportation and communication and their relative advantages and disadvantages;
iv. Trade: Regional and International Trade, advantages and disadvantages;
v. Tourism: types, importance, problems
and solutions.
Candidates should be able to:
Bi. compare the farming systems practiced in
Nigeria;
ii. identify the crops produced and the problems
encountered;
iii. identify the types and location of the major
manufacturing industries;
iv. determine the factors of industrial location and the problems associated with the industries;
v. establish the relationship between transport and communication;
vi. relate the modes of transportation and communication to their relative advantages and disadvantages;
vii. classify the major commodities of
regional and international trade;
viii. identify reasons for tourism and tourist centres;
ix. account for the problems and solutions
C. ECOWAS
i. Meaning and objectives
ii. Member states
iii. Advantages and benefits
iv. Disadvantages, problems and solutions
Candidates should be able to:
Ci. State the meaning, purpose and objectives;
ii. identify and locate the member countries;
iii. evaluate the prospects and problems of the
organization.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Adeleke, B.O. Areola .O. 2002 and Leong, G.C. Certificate Physical and Human Geography for Senior Secondary School (West African Edition), Ibadan: Oxford.
Bradshaw, M. et al (2004) Contemporary World Regional Geography, New York: McGraw Hill
Bunet, R.B and Okunrotifa, P.O.(1999) General Geography in Diagrams for West Africa, China: Longman.
Collins New Secondary Atlas, Macmillan
Fellman, D. et al (2005) Introduction to Geography (Seventh Edition) New York: McGraw Hill
Getis, A. et al (2004) Introduction to Geography (Ninth Edition) New York: McGraw Hill
Iloeje, N. P(1999) A New Geography of West Africa, Hong Kong: Longman
Iloeje, N.P(1982) A New Geography of Nigeria (New Education), Hong Kong: London
Nimako, D.A. (2000) Map Reading of West Africa, Essex: Longman.
Okunrotifa, P.O. and Michael S. (2000) A Regional Geography of Africa (New Edition), Essex: London.
Udo, R.K(1970) Geographical Regions of Nigeria, London: Longman.
Waugh, D. (1995) Geography an Integrated Approach (Second Edition), China: Nelson
awajis.com/jamb
Adegoke M.A (2013), A Comprehensive Text on Physical, Human and Regional Geography.

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Vibehose is a young Nigerian Student, Music lover, and a blogger aiming at sharing useful information to the society through Smilehopego.

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